A flexible framework for metacognitive modelling and development

Liz Bacon*, Lachlan MacKinnon

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


Research in eLearning and technology enhanced learning (TEL) has predominantly focused on the creation of learning materials in appropriate forms, such as learning objects, the assessment methods that can usefully be applied online, and the delivery mechanisms for these materials, particularly in virtual learning environments (VLEs). In more recent times, research has begun to focus on pedagogical issues, and in particular whether there is some specific model that applies explicitly to online learning situations. Through a number of projects over the last ten years the authors have considered issues of learning style, learning strategy, pedagogy, immersive environments, student engagement and motivation, games-based learning, adaptation and personalisation. Emerging from this work, and from extensive consideration of the existing research in this area, this paper argues a need to move not only to a different pedagogic model, but also to change the existing structural approach to learning to support the rising demand for online distance learning provision worldwide. Fundamental to this argument is a need to support a heutagogic model of student learning, which requires that the students involved are sufficiently educationally mature to take control of their own learning experience. Whilst within traditional teaching models in higher education there is an explicit aspiration that students will emerge as educationally mature, metacognitive graduates, this is often seen as an outcome of the learning process itself, rather than as a skillset which can be taught and assessed. The paper describes an approach to metacognitive assessment that has already been used to determine the level and skills displayed by students in making selections of learning materials online. Based on this approach, a structural model for online learning support is proposed, using an assessment, feedback and training loop to ensure that students have the level of metacognitive skills necessary to take effective control of their own online learning experience.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the International Conference on e-Learning, ICEL
EditorsTeresita Arenas Yanez, Paul Griffiths, Oscar Saavedra Rodriguez
PublisherAcademic Conferences and Publishing International Limited
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9781632668301
ISBN (Print)9871909507692
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes
Event9th International Conference on e-Learning, ICEL 2014 - Valparaiso, Chile
Duration: 26 Jun 201427 Jun 2014


Conference9th International Conference on e-Learning, ICEL 2014


  • Metacognition
  • Learning strategies
  • Heutagogy
  • Personalised learning
  • Technology enhanced learning


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