A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women

Ray Lloyd, Bridget Parr, Simeon Davies, Carlton Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-391
Number of pages12
JournalErgonomics
Volume54
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

Fingerprint

woman
measurement method
contact
Kinetics
statement
adaptation
reaction
relevance
security
African
measurement
consequences
comparison
health
understanding
perspective
people
impact
method
time

Cite this

Lloyd, R., Parr, B., Davies, S., & Cooke, C. (2011). A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women. Ergonomics, 54(4), 380-391. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636

Lloyd, Ray; Parr, Bridget; Davies, Simeon; Cooke, Carlton / A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women.

In: Ergonomics, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2011, p. 380-391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{3c5005e7c43249b6b43f2eb4af0906ba,
title = "A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.",
author = "Ray Lloyd and Bridget Parr and Simeon Davies and Carlton Cooke",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1080/00140139.2011.558636",
volume = "54",
pages = "380--391",
journal = "Ergonomics",
issn = "0014-0139",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "4",

}

Lloyd, R, Parr, B, Davies, S & Cooke, C 2011, 'A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women' Ergonomics, vol 54, no. 4, pp. 380-391. DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636

A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women. / Lloyd, Ray; Parr, Bridget; Davies, Simeon; Cooke, Carlton.

In: Ergonomics, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2011, p. 380-391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women

AU - Lloyd,Ray

AU - Parr,Bridget

AU - Davies,Simeon

AU - Cooke,Carlton

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.

AB - The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.

U2 - 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636

DO - 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 380

EP - 391

JO - Ergonomics

T2 - Ergonomics

JF - Ergonomics

SN - 0014-0139

IS - 4

ER -

Lloyd R, Parr B, Davies S, Cooke C. A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women. Ergonomics. 2011;54(4):380-391. Available from, DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636