A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women

Ray Lloyd, Bridget Parr, Simeon Davies, Carlton Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)
45 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)380-391
Number of pages12
JournalErgonomics
Volume54
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Head
Kinetics
contact
Group
experience
Force measurement
health
Walking
Health
Safety
time

Cite this

Lloyd, Ray ; Parr, Bridget ; Davies, Simeon ; Cooke, Carlton. / A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women. In: Ergonomics. 2011 ; Vol. 54, No. 4. pp. 380-391.
@article{3c5005e7c43249b6b43f2eb4af0906ba,
title = "A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women",
abstract = "The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.",
author = "Ray Lloyd and Bridget Parr and Simeon Davies and Carlton Cooke",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1080/00140139.2011.558636",
language = "English",
volume = "54",
pages = "380--391",
journal = "Ergonomics",
issn = "0014-0139",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "4",

}

A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women. / Lloyd, Ray; Parr, Bridget; Davies, Simeon; Cooke, Carlton.

In: Ergonomics, Vol. 54, No. 4, 2011, p. 380-391.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - A kinetic comparison of back-loading and head-loading in Xhosa women

AU - Lloyd, Ray

AU - Parr, Bridget

AU - Davies, Simeon

AU - Cooke, Carlton

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.

AB - The purpose of this study was to compare the kinetic responses associated with ground reaction force measurements to both head-loading and back-loading in a group of Xhosa women. Altogether, 16 women were divided into two groups based on their experience of head-loading. They walked over a force plate in three conditions: unloaded or carrying 20 kg in either a backpack or on their head. The most striking finding was that there was no difference in kinetic response to head-loading as a consequence of previous experience. Considering the differences between the load carriage methods, most changes were consistent with increasing load. Head-loading was, however, associated with a shorter contact time, smaller thrust maximum and greater vertical force minimum than back-loading. Both loading conditions differed from unloaded walking for a number of temporal variables associated with the ground contact phase, e.g. vertical impact peak was delayed whilst vertical thrust maximum occurred earlier. Statement of Relevance: Consideration of the kinetics of head and back load carriage in African women is important from a health and safety perspective, providing an understanding of the mechanical adaptations associated with both forms of load carriage for a group of people for whom such load carriage is a daily necessity.

U2 - 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636

DO - 10.1080/00140139.2011.558636

M3 - Article

VL - 54

SP - 380

EP - 391

JO - Ergonomics

JF - Ergonomics

SN - 0014-0139

IS - 4

ER -