Synergistic tumor treatment has recently attracted more and more attention due to its remarkable therapeutic effect. Herein, a multifunctional drug delivery system based on hyaluronic acid (HA) targeted dual stimulation responsive MoS2 nanosheets (HA-PEI-LA-MoS2-PEG, HPMP) for active interaction with CD44 receptor positive MCF-7 cells is reported. Melanin (Mel), a new type of photothermal agent and doxorubicin (DOX) are both loaded onto the HPMP nanocomposite and can be released by mild acid or hyperthermia. The prepared HPMP nanocomposite has a uniform hydrodynamic diameter (104 nm), a high drug loading (944.3 mg.g-1 HPMP), a remarkable photothermal effect (photothermal conversion efficiency: 55.3%) and excellent biocompatibility. The DOX release from HPMP@(DOX/Mel) can be precisely controlled by the dual stimuli of utilizing the acidic environment in the tumor cells and external laser irradiation. Meanwhile, loading of Mel onto the surface can enhance the photothermal effect of the MoS2 nanosheets. In vitro experiments showed that the HPMP@(DOX/Mel) nanoplatform could efficiently deliver DOX into MCF-7 cells and demonstrated enhanced cytotoxicity compared to that of the non-targeted nanoplatform. In vivo experiments in a breast cancer model of nude mice further confirmed that the HPMP@(DOX/Mel) significantly inhibited tumor growth under near infrared (NIR) laser irradiation, which is superior to any single therapy. In summary, this flexible nanoplatform, based on multi-faceted loaded MoS2 nanosheets, exhibits considerable potential for efficient pH/NIR-responsive targeted drug delivery and chemo-photothermal synergistic tumor therapy.