A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras

Max O. Kluger, Vicki G. Moon, Stefan Kreiter, David J. Lowe, G. J. Churchman, Daniel A. Hepp, David Seibel, M. Ehsan Jorat, Tobias Mörz

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    3 Citations (Scopus)
    17 Downloads (Pure)

    Abstract

    Altered pyroclastic (tephra) deposits are highly susceptible to landsliding, leading to fatalities and property damage every year. Halloysite, a low-activity clay mineral, is commonly associated with landslide-prone layers within altered tephra successions, especially in deposits with high sensitivity, which describes the post-failure strength loss. However, the precise role of halloysite in the development of sensitivity, and thus in sudden and unpredictable landsliding, is unknown. Here we show that an abundance of mushroom cap–shaped (MCS) spheroidal halloysite governs the development of sensitivity, and hence proneness to landsliding, in altered rhyolitic tephras, North Island, New Zealand. We found that a highly sensitive layer, which was involved in a flow slide, has a remarkably high content of aggregated MCS spheroids with substantial openings on one side. We suggest that short-range electrostatic and van der Waals interactions enabled the MCS spheroids to form interconnected aggregates by attraction between the edges of numerous paired silanol and aluminol sheets that are exposed in the openings and the convex silanol faces on the exterior surfaces of adjacent MCS spheroids. If these weak attractions are overcome during slope failure, multiple, weakly attracted MCS spheroids can be separated from one another, and the prevailing repulsion between exterior MCS surfaces results in a low remolded shear strength, a high sensitivity, and a high propensity for flow sliding. The evidence indicates that the attraction-detachment model explains the high sensitivity and contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of flow sliding in sensitive, altered tephras rich in spheroidal halloysite.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)131-134
    Number of pages4
    JournalGeology
    Volume45
    Issue number2
    Early online date8 Dec 2016
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Feb 2017

    Fingerprint

    mushroom
    sliding
    halloysite
    clay
    tephra
    slope failure
    shear strength
    clay mineral
    landslide
    damage

    Cite this

    Kluger, M. O., Moon, V. G., Kreiter, S., Lowe, D. J., Churchman, G. J., Hepp, D. A., ... Mörz, T. (2017). A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras. Geology, 45(2), 131-134. https://doi.org/10.1130/G38560.1
    Kluger, Max O. ; Moon, Vicki G. ; Kreiter, Stefan ; Lowe, David J. ; Churchman, G. J. ; Hepp, Daniel A. ; Seibel, David ; Jorat, M. Ehsan ; Mörz, Tobias. / A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras. In: Geology. 2017 ; Vol. 45, No. 2. pp. 131-134.
    @article{8f2d02d0f3054d05b41a948a84498aaa,
    title = "A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras",
    abstract = "Altered pyroclastic (tephra) deposits are highly susceptible to landsliding, leading to fatalities and property damage every year. Halloysite, a low-activity clay mineral, is commonly associated with landslide-prone layers within altered tephra successions, especially in deposits with high sensitivity, which describes the post-failure strength loss. However, the precise role of halloysite in the development of sensitivity, and thus in sudden and unpredictable landsliding, is unknown. Here we show that an abundance of mushroom cap–shaped (MCS) spheroidal halloysite governs the development of sensitivity, and hence proneness to landsliding, in altered rhyolitic tephras, North Island, New Zealand. We found that a highly sensitive layer, which was involved in a flow slide, has a remarkably high content of aggregated MCS spheroids with substantial openings on one side. We suggest that short-range electrostatic and van der Waals interactions enabled the MCS spheroids to form interconnected aggregates by attraction between the edges of numerous paired silanol and aluminol sheets that are exposed in the openings and the convex silanol faces on the exterior surfaces of adjacent MCS spheroids. If these weak attractions are overcome during slope failure, multiple, weakly attracted MCS spheroids can be separated from one another, and the prevailing repulsion between exterior MCS surfaces results in a low remolded shear strength, a high sensitivity, and a high propensity for flow sliding. The evidence indicates that the attraction-detachment model explains the high sensitivity and contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of flow sliding in sensitive, altered tephras rich in spheroidal halloysite.",
    author = "Kluger, {Max O.} and Moon, {Vicki G.} and Stefan Kreiter and Lowe, {David J.} and Churchman, {G. J.} and Hepp, {Daniel A.} and David Seibel and Jorat, {M. Ehsan} and Tobias M{\"o}rz",
    year = "2017",
    month = "2",
    doi = "10.1130/G38560.1",
    language = "English",
    volume = "45",
    pages = "131--134",
    journal = "Geology",
    issn = "0091-7613",
    publisher = "Geological Society of America",
    number = "2",

    }

    Kluger, MO, Moon, VG, Kreiter, S, Lowe, DJ, Churchman, GJ, Hepp, DA, Seibel, D, Jorat, ME & Mörz, T 2017, 'A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras', Geology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 131-134. https://doi.org/10.1130/G38560.1

    A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras. / Kluger, Max O.; Moon, Vicki G.; Kreiter, Stefan; Lowe, David J.; Churchman, G. J.; Hepp, Daniel A.; Seibel, David; Jorat, M. Ehsan; Mörz, Tobias.

    In: Geology, Vol. 45, No. 2, 02.2017, p. 131-134.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras

    AU - Kluger, Max O.

    AU - Moon, Vicki G.

    AU - Kreiter, Stefan

    AU - Lowe, David J.

    AU - Churchman, G. J.

    AU - Hepp, Daniel A.

    AU - Seibel, David

    AU - Jorat, M. Ehsan

    AU - Mörz, Tobias

    PY - 2017/2

    Y1 - 2017/2

    N2 - Altered pyroclastic (tephra) deposits are highly susceptible to landsliding, leading to fatalities and property damage every year. Halloysite, a low-activity clay mineral, is commonly associated with landslide-prone layers within altered tephra successions, especially in deposits with high sensitivity, which describes the post-failure strength loss. However, the precise role of halloysite in the development of sensitivity, and thus in sudden and unpredictable landsliding, is unknown. Here we show that an abundance of mushroom cap–shaped (MCS) spheroidal halloysite governs the development of sensitivity, and hence proneness to landsliding, in altered rhyolitic tephras, North Island, New Zealand. We found that a highly sensitive layer, which was involved in a flow slide, has a remarkably high content of aggregated MCS spheroids with substantial openings on one side. We suggest that short-range electrostatic and van der Waals interactions enabled the MCS spheroids to form interconnected aggregates by attraction between the edges of numerous paired silanol and aluminol sheets that are exposed in the openings and the convex silanol faces on the exterior surfaces of adjacent MCS spheroids. If these weak attractions are overcome during slope failure, multiple, weakly attracted MCS spheroids can be separated from one another, and the prevailing repulsion between exterior MCS surfaces results in a low remolded shear strength, a high sensitivity, and a high propensity for flow sliding. The evidence indicates that the attraction-detachment model explains the high sensitivity and contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of flow sliding in sensitive, altered tephras rich in spheroidal halloysite.

    AB - Altered pyroclastic (tephra) deposits are highly susceptible to landsliding, leading to fatalities and property damage every year. Halloysite, a low-activity clay mineral, is commonly associated with landslide-prone layers within altered tephra successions, especially in deposits with high sensitivity, which describes the post-failure strength loss. However, the precise role of halloysite in the development of sensitivity, and thus in sudden and unpredictable landsliding, is unknown. Here we show that an abundance of mushroom cap–shaped (MCS) spheroidal halloysite governs the development of sensitivity, and hence proneness to landsliding, in altered rhyolitic tephras, North Island, New Zealand. We found that a highly sensitive layer, which was involved in a flow slide, has a remarkably high content of aggregated MCS spheroids with substantial openings on one side. We suggest that short-range electrostatic and van der Waals interactions enabled the MCS spheroids to form interconnected aggregates by attraction between the edges of numerous paired silanol and aluminol sheets that are exposed in the openings and the convex silanol faces on the exterior surfaces of adjacent MCS spheroids. If these weak attractions are overcome during slope failure, multiple, weakly attracted MCS spheroids can be separated from one another, and the prevailing repulsion between exterior MCS surfaces results in a low remolded shear strength, a high sensitivity, and a high propensity for flow sliding. The evidence indicates that the attraction-detachment model explains the high sensitivity and contributes to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of flow sliding in sensitive, altered tephras rich in spheroidal halloysite.

    U2 - 10.1130/G38560.1

    DO - 10.1130/G38560.1

    M3 - Article

    VL - 45

    SP - 131

    EP - 134

    JO - Geology

    JF - Geology

    SN - 0091-7613

    IS - 2

    ER -

    Kluger MO, Moon VG, Kreiter S, Lowe DJ, Churchman GJ, Hepp DA et al. A new attraction-detachment model for explaining flow sliding in clay-rich tephras. Geology. 2017 Feb;45(2):131-134. https://doi.org/10.1130/G38560.1