OBJECTIVE: To develop a taxonomy of explanations for patients with persistent physical symptoms.
METHODS: We analysed doctors' explanations from two studies of a moderately-intensive consultation intervention for patients with multiple, often "medically-unexplained," physical symptoms. We used a constant comparative method to develop a taxonomy which was then applied to all verbatim explanations.
RESULTS: We analysed 138 explanations provided by five general practitioners to 38 patients. The taxonomy comprised explanation types and explanation components. Three explanation types described the overall structure of the explanations: Rational Adaptive, Automatic Adaptive, and Complex. These differed in terms of who or what was given agency within the explanation. Three explanation components described the content of the explanation: Facts - generic statements about normal or dysfunctional processes; Causes - person-specific statements about proximal or distal causes for symptoms; Mechanisms - processes by which symptoms arise or persist in the individual. Most explanations conformed to one type and contained several components.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel taxonomy for classifying clinical explanations permits detailed classification of explanation types and content. Explanation types appear to carry different implications of agency.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The taxonomy is suitable for examining explanations and developing prototype explanatory scripts in both training and research settings.
- Medically unexplained symptoms
- Somatoform disorders
- Primary care