Yeasts have a long-standing relationship with humankind that has widened in recent years to encompass production of diverse foods, beverages, fuels and medicines. Here, key advances in the field of yeast fermentation applied to alcohol production, which represents the predominant product of industrial biotechnology, will be presented. More specifically, we have selected industries focused in producing bioethanol, beer and wine. In these bioprocesses, yeasts from the genus Saccharomyces are still the main players, with Saccharomyces cerevisiae recognized as the preeminent industrial ethanologen. However, the growing demand for new products has opened the door to diverse yeasts, including non-Saccharomyces strains. Furthermore, the development of synthetic media that successfully simulate industrial fermentation medium will be discussed along with a general overview of yeast fermentation modeling.