The clinical course of B-CLL is heterogeneous. This heterogeneity leads to a clinical dilemma: can we identify those patients who will benefit from early treatment and predict the survival? In recent years, mathematical modelling has contributed significantly in understanding the complexity of diseases. In order to build a mathematical model for determining prognosis of B-CLL one has to identify, characterise and quantify key molecules involved in the disease. Here we discuss the need and role of mathematical modelling in predicting B-CLL disease pathogenesis and suggest a new systems biology approach for a personalised therapy of B-CLL patients.