An alternative carrier solvent for fingermark enhancement reagents

Izabela Olszowska, Paul Deacon, Lindsay Maurice, Adam Lesniewski, Joanna Niedziolka-Jonsson, Kevin Farrugia

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    Solstice® Performance Fluid (PF), trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene, is presented as an alternative to HFE7100, methoxy-nonafluorobutane, as a carrier solvent in a number of chemical formulations used for the visualisation of latent fingermarks. The supply of HFE7100 may be at riskdue to a recent European Union regulation to control global warming. Laboratory trials using split depletions and a pseudo-operational trial of 1000 porous samples have shown that Solstice® PF is a viable alternative to HFE7100 for the chemical formulations of ninhydrin and 1,2-indanedione. Other preliminary trials have also indicated that Solstice® PF can be used as a carrier solvent for the zinc toning of marks found using ninhydrin as well as the α-naphtholflavone fixative solution for iodine developed marks. Results from the pseudo-operational trial demonstrate that the number of marks detected by ninhydrin and 1,2-indanedione formulations for each carrier solvent is comparable. When compared to HFE7100, advantages of Solstice® PF include a very low global warming potential and atmospheric lifetime in addition to a higher wetting index and lower costs. This study also provides a validation study that supports the potential replacement of DFO with 1,2-indanedione.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)53-64
    Number of pages12
    JournalForensic Science International
    Early online date11 Dec 2017
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018


    • Ninhydrin
    • DFO
    • 1,2-indanedione
    • HFE7100
    • Solstice® PF
    • Fingermark
    • Pseudo-operational trials


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