Analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in post-mortem fluids and tissues

Megan L. Crichton, Catriona F. Shenton, Gail Drummond, Lewis J. Beer, L. Nitin Seetohul, Peter D. Maskell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Phenazepam is a benzodiazepine that is predominantly used clinically in the former Soviet states but is being abused throughout the wider world. This study reports the tissue distribution and concentration of both phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in 29 cases quantitated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a variety of post-mortem fluids (subclavian blood, femoral blood, cardiac blood, urine, vitreous humour) and tissues (thalamus, liver and psoas muscle). In 27 cases, the cause of death was not directly related to phenazepam (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood phenazepam concentrations 0.007mg/L to 0.360mg/L (median 0.097mg/L). In two cases, phenazepam was either a contributing factor to, or the certified cause of death (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood 0.97mg/L and 1.64mg/L). The analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in this study suggests that they are unlikely to be subject to large post-mortem redistribution and that there is no direct correlation between tissues/fluid and femoral blood concentrations. Preliminary investigations of phenazepam stability comparing femoral blood phenazepam concentrations in paired preserved (2.5% fluoride/oxalate) and unpreserved blood show that unpreserved samples show on average a 14% lower concentration of phenazepam and we recommend that phenazepam quantitation is carried out using preserved samples wherever possible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)926-936
Number of pages11
JournalDrug Testing and Analysis
Volume7
Issue number10
Early online date5 Apr 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

blood
Tissue
Blood
Fluids
fluid
Thigh
oxalate
fluoride
Oxalates
Fluorides
cause of death
Cause of Death
phenazepam
3-hydroxyphenazepam
analysis
tissue
Psoas Muscles
Vitreous Body
urine
Liquid chromatography

Cite this

Crichton, M. L., Shenton, C. F., Drummond, G., Beer, L. J., Seetohul, L. N., & Maskell, P. D. (2015). Analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in post-mortem fluids and tissues. Drug Testing and Analysis, 7(10), 926-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1790
Crichton, Megan L. ; Shenton, Catriona F. ; Drummond, Gail ; Beer, Lewis J. ; Seetohul, L. Nitin ; Maskell, Peter D. / Analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in post-mortem fluids and tissues. In: Drug Testing and Analysis. 2015 ; Vol. 7, No. 10. pp. 926-936.
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Crichton, ML, Shenton, CF, Drummond, G, Beer, LJ, Seetohul, LN & Maskell, PD 2015, 'Analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in post-mortem fluids and tissues', Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 926-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1790

Analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in post-mortem fluids and tissues. / Crichton, Megan L.; Shenton, Catriona F.; Drummond, Gail; Beer, Lewis J.; Seetohul, L. Nitin; Maskell, Peter D.

In: Drug Testing and Analysis, Vol. 7, No. 10, 01.10.2015, p. 926-936.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in post-mortem fluids and tissues

AU - Crichton, Megan L.

AU - Shenton, Catriona F.

AU - Drummond, Gail

AU - Beer, Lewis J.

AU - Seetohul, L. Nitin

AU - Maskell, Peter D.

PY - 2015/10/1

Y1 - 2015/10/1

N2 - Phenazepam is a benzodiazepine that is predominantly used clinically in the former Soviet states but is being abused throughout the wider world. This study reports the tissue distribution and concentration of both phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in 29 cases quantitated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a variety of post-mortem fluids (subclavian blood, femoral blood, cardiac blood, urine, vitreous humour) and tissues (thalamus, liver and psoas muscle). In 27 cases, the cause of death was not directly related to phenazepam (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood phenazepam concentrations 0.007mg/L to 0.360mg/L (median 0.097mg/L). In two cases, phenazepam was either a contributing factor to, or the certified cause of death (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood 0.97mg/L and 1.64mg/L). The analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in this study suggests that they are unlikely to be subject to large post-mortem redistribution and that there is no direct correlation between tissues/fluid and femoral blood concentrations. Preliminary investigations of phenazepam stability comparing femoral blood phenazepam concentrations in paired preserved (2.5% fluoride/oxalate) and unpreserved blood show that unpreserved samples show on average a 14% lower concentration of phenazepam and we recommend that phenazepam quantitation is carried out using preserved samples wherever possible.

AB - Phenazepam is a benzodiazepine that is predominantly used clinically in the former Soviet states but is being abused throughout the wider world. This study reports the tissue distribution and concentration of both phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in 29 cases quantitated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a variety of post-mortem fluids (subclavian blood, femoral blood, cardiac blood, urine, vitreous humour) and tissues (thalamus, liver and psoas muscle). In 27 cases, the cause of death was not directly related to phenazepam (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood phenazepam concentrations 0.007mg/L to 0.360mg/L (median 0.097mg/L). In two cases, phenazepam was either a contributing factor to, or the certified cause of death (preserved (fluoride/oxalate) femoral blood 0.97mg/L and 1.64mg/L). The analysis of phenazepam and 3-hydroxyphenazepam in this study suggests that they are unlikely to be subject to large post-mortem redistribution and that there is no direct correlation between tissues/fluid and femoral blood concentrations. Preliminary investigations of phenazepam stability comparing femoral blood phenazepam concentrations in paired preserved (2.5% fluoride/oxalate) and unpreserved blood show that unpreserved samples show on average a 14% lower concentration of phenazepam and we recommend that phenazepam quantitation is carried out using preserved samples wherever possible.

U2 - 10.1002/dta.1790

DO - 10.1002/dta.1790

M3 - Article

C2 - 25847502

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VL - 7

SP - 926

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JO - Drug Testing and Analysis

JF - Drug Testing and Analysis

SN - 1942-7603

IS - 10

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