The purpose of this study was to explore situational determinants of goal-directed self-talk and to advance our understanding of athletes’ goal-directed self-talk functions. Participants were 97 young adult athletes (Mage = 20.36; SD = 3.38), competing at regional, national, and international level. In face-to-face meetings, participants were guided to describe situations in which they had used goal-directed self-talk. Subsequently, they were asked to report what their goal-directed self-talk in these situations had been. Both inductive and deductive data analyses were used to address the research questions. Regarding the situations, participants used goal-directed self-talk mainly in a variety of situations in training, and before, during and after competition. Furthermore, they also employed self-talk to better handle substitutions, injuries and interpersonal conflicts. Regarding self-talk functions, the initial coding scheme was expanded with additional categories to add depth and specificity to the model. Specifically, newly described self-talk functions relate to performance analyses, goal-orientation promotion, reasons underlying persistence, time perceptions and down-regulation of excessive confidence. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that athletes have different self-talk functions at their disposal, to manage a large variety of situations.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology|
|Early online date||3 May 2019|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 3 May 2019|
Latinjak, A. T., Masó, M., Calmeiro, L., & Hatzigeorgiadis, A. (2019). Athletes’ use of goal-directed self-talk: situational determinants and functions. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2019.1611899