Bar charts versus plain numbers: visualizations for enhancing the soccer-watching experience on TV via a second screen

Ege Sezen*, Emmanuel Tsekleves, Andreas Mauthe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Research shows that a considerable proportion of TV soccer audiences use “second screen” when they watch soccer matches on TV. However, certain details regarding the usage of a second screen and how they affect the users’ watching experience are unknown. This article describes how most common visualizations of certain match-related information on a second screen affect the watching experience of soccer matches on TV. Moreover, this article provides design recommendations for second-screen applications in terms of visualizations. The design recommendations address to ensure an effective and enjoyable presentation of match-related information adapted to the users’ needs. In order to achieve this, questions such as how memorable and enjoyable most common types of visualizations are, if there is a trade-off between them, and what other relevant factors impact on the viewing experience were considered. Two types of visualization were compared in prototype experiments in terms of their effectiveness, memorability, and enjoyment. The findings revealed that different visualizations had different effects in terms of effectiveness and enjoyment on the watching experience. As a result, the findings recommend that different purposes need to be considered for the design of the relevant apps and websites in this regard.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)35-60
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Visual Design
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Information graphics
  • Bar charts
  • Plain numbers
  • Soccer
  • Television
  • Second screen
  • Audience
  • User experience

Cite this