Botulinum neurotoxin serotypes detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

Alison C. Savage, Nicholas Buckley, Jennifer Halliwell, Christopher Gwenin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)


Botulinum neurotoxin is one of the deadliest biological toxins known to mankind and is able to cause the debilitating disease botulism. The rapid detection of the different serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin is essential for both diagnosis of botulism and identifying the presence of toxin in potential cases of terrorism and food contamination. The modes of action of botulinum neurotoxins are well-established in literature and differ for each serotype. The toxins are known to specifically cleave portions of the SNARE proteins SNAP-25 or VAMP; an interaction that can be monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This study presents a SNAP-25 and a VAMP biosensors for detecting the activity of five botulinum neurotoxin serotypes (A–E) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biosensors are able to detect concentrations of toxins as low as 25 fg/mL, in a short time-frame compared with the current standard methods of detection. Both biosensors show greater specificity for their compatible serotypes compared with incompatible serotypes and denatured toxins.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1544-1555
Number of pages12
Issue number5
Early online date6 May 2015
Publication statusPublished - 6 May 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • Biosensor
  • SNAP-25
  • VAMP
  • Botulinum neurotoxin


Dive into the research topics of 'Botulinum neurotoxin serotypes detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this