Antimicrobial activity of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and two native Australian plants blueberry ash (BBA) fruit and macadamia (MAC) skin extracts against nine pathogenic and spoilage bacteria and seven strains of fungi, using an agar well diffusion assay were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these compounds were calculated using 96-well microtiter plates method. Finally, active antimicrobial packaging films were prepared by incorporation of EGCG, BBA and MAC extracts at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-fold of their correspondence MIC values into edible films based on pea starch and guar gum (PSGG). The antimicrobial activity of films was investigated against target microorganisms by agar disc diffusion technique and quantified using the viable cell count assay. Among the test microorganisms, Salmonella typhimurium and Rhizopus sp. were the most resistance to active films. Films containing EGCG showed the highest activity against all test strains. As the concentration of compounds increased higher than 2 × MIC, the mechanical characteristics of the films were affected considerably. The results indicated that EGCG-PSGG, BBA-PSGG and MAC-PSGG films can be used as active food packaging systems for preserving food safety and prolonging the shelf-life of the packaged food.
Saberi, B., Chockchaisawasdee, S., Golding, J. B., Scarlett, C. J., & Stathopoulos, C. E. (2017). Characterization of pea starch-guar gum biocomposite edible films enriched by natural antimicrobial agents for active food packaging. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 105, 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2017.06.003