Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on fabric

Kevin J. Farrugia, Helen Bandey, Stephen Bleay, Niamh NicDaéid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
228 Downloads (Pure)


A range of chemical techniques were utilised for the enhancement of footwear impressions deposited on a variety of fabric types of different colours with urine as a contaminant. A semi-automated stamping device was used to deliver test impressions at a set force to minimise the variability between impressions; multiple impressions were produced and enhanced by each reagent to determine the repeatability of the enhancement. Urine samples from different donors were analysed using a spectrofluorophotometer revealing differences between individuals. Results indicated that the enhancement of footwear impressions in urine was possible using amino acid staining techniques whereas protein stains failed to achieve successful enhancement.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-81
Number of pages15
JournalForensic Science International
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Footwear impressions
  • Urine
  • Fabric
  • Enhancement
  • Ninhydrin
  • DFO
  • DMAC
  • 1,2-Indanedione


Dive into the research topics of 'Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on fabric'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this