In this chapter we first consider what constitutes cyber terrorism, to distinguish such events from other forms of cybercrime, and to establish a rationale for that distinction. We discuss some of the characteristics of cyber terrorist events in comparison with cybercriminal events, and the changes that have occurred, socially and technologically, that make such events both more likely and more damaging. We then go on to consider three key aspects of cyber terrorist attacks, cyber attacks on physical systems, malware specifically developed for such attacks, and insider threats to enable or support such attacks. Next, we look at the countermeasures that can be adopted by organizations and individuals to address such threats, highlighting the significant human component of such systems through the need for standards-based policies and protocols, good security hygiene, and the training of system users at all levels. We also consider some issues of physical systems upgrade, and some software measures that can be used to identify and isolate cyber threats. Finally, we consider the future in terms of the likely further growth of cyber terrorist events, and the threat they pose to critical infrastructure and the systems on which, socially and technologically, we increasingly rely.
|Title of host publication||Strategic intelligence management|
|Subtitle of host publication||national security imperatives and information and communications technologies|
|Editors||Babak Akhgar, Simeon Yates|
|Number of pages||24|
|Publication status||Published - 11 Mar 2013|
MacKinnon, L., Bacon, L., Gan, D., Loukas, G., Chadwick, D., & Frangiskatos, D. (2013). Cyber security countermeasures to combat cyber terrorism. In B. Akhgar, & S. Yates (Eds.), Strategic intelligence management: national security imperatives and information and communications technologies (pp. 234-257). Butterworth-Heinemann. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407191-9.00020-X