Differential effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on biomarkers of glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy, overweight and obese subjects: a randomized clinical trial

Suzana Almoosawi, Catherine Tsang, L.M. Ostertag, L. Fyfe, Emad A. S. Al-Dujaili

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The association between excess cortisol and various parameters of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia is increasingly recognised. The present single-blind randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study compared the effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on biomarkers of glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) in females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) (n = 21) and females with BMI <25 kg m(-2) (n = 21). Volunteers consumed 20 g of DC containing 500 mg polyphenols or a placebo DC with negligible polyphenol-content daily for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-week washout period. Systolic BP and diastolic BP decreased after 4 weeks of polyphenol-rich DC. Placebo raised fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and salivary cortisol, an effect that was significantly different from polyphenol-rich DC which had a negligible effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and salivary cortisol. Females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) responded less favourably to placebo than lean females and consequently had higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, in addition to a lower quantitative sensitivity check index (QUICKI) after ingestion of placebo compared to polyphenol-rich DC. No significant changes in lipid profile were observed. This study provides evidence for the metabolic benefits of consuming polyphenol-rich dark chocolate while demonstrating the possibility of adverse effects occurring with polyphenol-poor chocolate placebo.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1035-1043
Number of pages9
JournalFood and Function
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012

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randomized clinical trials
chocolate
Polyphenols
biomarkers
polyphenols
risk factors
Randomized Controlled Trials
Biomarkers
placebos
Glucose
glucose
metabolism
Placebos
insulin resistance
Insulin Resistance
Blood Pressure
cortisol
fasting
Hydrocortisone
Fasting

Cite this

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title = "Differential effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on biomarkers of glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy, overweight and obese subjects: a randomized clinical trial",
abstract = "The association between excess cortisol and various parameters of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia is increasingly recognised. The present single-blind randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study compared the effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on biomarkers of glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) in females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) (n = 21) and females with BMI <25 kg m(-2) (n = 21). Volunteers consumed 20 g of DC containing 500 mg polyphenols or a placebo DC with negligible polyphenol-content daily for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-week washout period. Systolic BP and diastolic BP decreased after 4 weeks of polyphenol-rich DC. Placebo raised fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and salivary cortisol, an effect that was significantly different from polyphenol-rich DC which had a negligible effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and salivary cortisol. Females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) responded less favourably to placebo than lean females and consequently had higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, in addition to a lower quantitative sensitivity check index (QUICKI) after ingestion of placebo compared to polyphenol-rich DC. No significant changes in lipid profile were observed. This study provides evidence for the metabolic benefits of consuming polyphenol-rich dark chocolate while demonstrating the possibility of adverse effects occurring with polyphenol-poor chocolate placebo.",
author = "Suzana Almoosawi and Catherine Tsang and L.M. Ostertag and L. Fyfe and Al-Dujaili, {Emad A. S.}",
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Differential effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on biomarkers of glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy, overweight and obese subjects: a randomized clinical trial. / Almoosawi, Suzana; Tsang, Catherine; Ostertag, L.M.; Fyfe, L.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.

In: Food and Function, Vol. 3, 10.2012, p. 1035-1043 .

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Differential effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on biomarkers of glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy, overweight and obese subjects: a randomized clinical trial

AU - Almoosawi, Suzana

AU - Tsang, Catherine

AU - Ostertag, L.M.

AU - Fyfe, L.

AU - Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.

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AB - The association between excess cortisol and various parameters of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia is increasingly recognised. The present single-blind randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study compared the effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on biomarkers of glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) in females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) (n = 21) and females with BMI <25 kg m(-2) (n = 21). Volunteers consumed 20 g of DC containing 500 mg polyphenols or a placebo DC with negligible polyphenol-content daily for 4 weeks, separated by a 2-week washout period. Systolic BP and diastolic BP decreased after 4 weeks of polyphenol-rich DC. Placebo raised fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and salivary cortisol, an effect that was significantly different from polyphenol-rich DC which had a negligible effect on fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and salivary cortisol. Females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) responded less favourably to placebo than lean females and consequently had higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, in addition to a lower quantitative sensitivity check index (QUICKI) after ingestion of placebo compared to polyphenol-rich DC. No significant changes in lipid profile were observed. This study provides evidence for the metabolic benefits of consuming polyphenol-rich dark chocolate while demonstrating the possibility of adverse effects occurring with polyphenol-poor chocolate placebo.

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