Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH

B. Steffen, V. Arsov, G. Berden, W. Allan Gillespie, S. P. Jamison, Allan M. MacLeod, A. F. G. van der Meer, P. J. Phillips, H. Schlarb, B. Schmidt, P. Schmüser

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Abstract

Precise measurements of the temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of ultraviolet and x-ray free-electron lasers. The electro-optic (EO) technique has been applied for a single-shot direct visualization of the time profile of individual electron bunches at FLASH. This paper presents a thorough description of the experimental setup and the results. An absolute calibration of the EO technique has been performed utilizing simultaneous measurements with a transverse-deflecting radio-frequency structure that transforms the longitudinal bunch charge distribution into a transverse streak. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed using a gallium-phosphide (GaP) crystal, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the physical limit imposed by the EO material properties. The data are in quantitative agreement with a numerical simulation of the EO detection process.
Original languageEnglish
Article number032802
Number of pages16
JournalPhysical Review Special Topics Accelerators and Beams
Volume12
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2009

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electro-optics
electrons
profiles
x ray lasers
free electron lasers
gallium phosphides
charge distribution
shot
monitors
radio frequencies
optimization
crystals
simulation

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Steffen, B., Arsov, V., Berden, G., Gillespie, W. A., Jamison, S. P., MacLeod, A. M., ... Schmüser, P. (2009). Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH. Physical Review Special Topics Accelerators and Beams, 12(3), [032802]. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.032802

Steffen, B.; Arsov, V.; Berden, G.; Gillespie, W. Allan; Jamison, S. P.; MacLeod, Allan M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Phillips, P. J.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmüser, P. / Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH.

In: Physical Review Special Topics Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 12, No. 3, 032802, 03.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH",
abstract = "Precise measurements of the temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of ultraviolet and x-ray free-electron lasers. The electro-optic (EO) technique has been applied for a single-shot direct visualization of the time profile of individual electron bunches at FLASH. This paper presents a thorough description of the experimental setup and the results. An absolute calibration of the EO technique has been performed utilizing simultaneous measurements with a transverse-deflecting radio-frequency structure that transforms the longitudinal bunch charge distribution into a transverse streak. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed using a gallium-phosphide (GaP) crystal, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the physical limit imposed by the EO material properties. The data are in quantitative agreement with a numerical simulation of the EO detection process.",
author = "B. Steffen and V. Arsov and G. Berden and Gillespie, {W. Allan} and Jamison, {S. P.} and MacLeod, {Allan M.} and {van der Meer}, {A. F. G.} and Phillips, {P. J.} and H. Schlarb and B. Schmidt and P. Schmüser",
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Steffen, B, Arsov, V, Berden, G, Gillespie, WA, Jamison, SP, MacLeod, AM, van der Meer, AFG, Phillips, PJ, Schlarb, H, Schmidt, B & Schmüser, P 2009, 'Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH' Physical Review Special Topics Accelerators and Beams, vol 12, no. 3, 032802. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.032802

Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH. / Steffen, B.; Arsov, V.; Berden, G.; Gillespie, W. Allan; Jamison, S. P.; MacLeod, Allan M.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Phillips, P. J.; Schlarb, H.; Schmidt, B.; Schmüser, P.

In: Physical Review Special Topics Accelerators and Beams, Vol. 12, No. 3, 032802, 03.2009.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Electro-optic time profile monitors for femtosecond electron bunches at the soft x-ray free-electron laser FLASH

AU - Steffen,B.

AU - Arsov,V.

AU - Berden,G.

AU - Gillespie,W. Allan

AU - Jamison,S. P.

AU - MacLeod,Allan M.

AU - van der Meer,A. F. G.

AU - Phillips,P. J.

AU - Schlarb,H.

AU - Schmidt,B.

AU - Schmüser,P.

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AB - Precise measurements of the temporal profile of ultrashort electron bunches are of high interest for the optimization and operation of ultraviolet and x-ray free-electron lasers. The electro-optic (EO) technique has been applied for a single-shot direct visualization of the time profile of individual electron bunches at FLASH. This paper presents a thorough description of the experimental setup and the results. An absolute calibration of the EO technique has been performed utilizing simultaneous measurements with a transverse-deflecting radio-frequency structure that transforms the longitudinal bunch charge distribution into a transverse streak. EO signals as short as 60 fs (rms) have been observed using a gallium-phosphide (GaP) crystal, which is a new record in the EO detection of single electron bunches and close to the physical limit imposed by the EO material properties. The data are in quantitative agreement with a numerical simulation of the EO detection process.

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