This study describes appraisal and coping patterns of trapshooters during competition, via post-performance retrospective verbal reports. Probabilities that an event (e.g., missed target) is followed by another event (e.g., negative appraisal) were calculated and state transitional diagrams were drawn. Event-sequences during critical and non-critical performance periods were compared. Negative appraisals were most likely before and after missed targets and hits with the second shot. Positive appraisals were most likely before problem-focused coping and after emotion-focused coping. These findings support the process view of coping by illustrating that athletes cope with a variety of situations via a complex set of appraisals.
Calmeiro, L., Tenenbaum, G., & Eccles, D. W. (2010). Event-sequence analysis of appraisals and coping during trapshooting performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(4), 392-407. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2010.495325