Event-sequence analysis of appraisals and coping during trapshooting performance

Luis Calmeiro, Gershon Tenenbaum, David W. Eccles

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
108 Downloads (Pure)


This study describes appraisal and coping patterns of trapshooters during competition, via post-performance retrospective verbal reports. Probabilities that an event (e.g., missed target) is followed by another event (e.g., negative appraisal) were calculated and state transitional diagrams were drawn. Event-sequences during critical and non-critical performance periods were compared. Negative appraisals were most likely before and after missed targets and hits with the second shot. Positive appraisals were most likely before problem-focused coping and after emotion-focused coping. These findings support the process view of coping by illustrating that athletes cope with a variety of situations via a complex set of appraisals.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-407
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Sport Psychology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010


  • Coping
  • Trapshooting
  • Verbal reports
  • Cognitive appraisals
  • Performance
  • Delayed retrospective reports


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