This work was initiated to prepare an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion containing β-carotene by microfluidization. The β-carotene was dissolved in triolein and microfluidized with an aqueous phase containing sodium caseinate (SC) as the emulsifier. Microfluization at 140 MPa resulted in O/W emulsions with a mean droplet diameter of ca. 120 nm, which was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. The influences of SC concentration and microfluidization parameters on the droplet size of the emulsions were studied. The results showed that the mean droplet diameter decreased significantly (p <0.05) from 310 to 93 nm with the increase in SC concentration from 0.1 to 2 wt-%. However, a further increase in SC concentration did not much change the droplet diameter, although the polydispersity of the emulsions was slightly improved. The droplet diameter of the emulsions was found to decrease from 200 to 120 nm with increasing microfluidization pressure, with narrower droplet size distribution. The storage study showed that the emulsions were physically stable for about 2 weeks at 4°C in the dark. The results provide a better understanding of the performance of SC in stabilizing the O/W emulsions.