Fructosamines, also known as Amadori products, are formed by the condensation of glucose with the amino group of amino acids or proteins. These compounds are precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can be formed either endogenously during aging and diabetes, and exogenously in heat-processed food. The negative effects of dietary AGEs on human health as well as their negative impact on the quality of dairy products have been widely described, therefore specific tools able to prevent the formation of glycation products are needed. Two fructosamine oxidase enzymes isolated from Aspergillus sp. namely, Faox I and Faox II catalyze the oxidative deglycation of Amadori products representing a potential tool for inhibiting the Maillard reaction in dairy products. In this paper, the ability of recombinant Faox I and II in limiting the formation of carboxy-methyl lysine (CML) and protein-bound hydroxymethyl furfurol (b-HMF) in a commercial UHT low lactose milk and a beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG) glucose model system was investigated. Results show a consistent reduction of CML and b-HMF under all conditions. Faox effects were particularly evident on b-HMF formation in low lactose commercial milk. Peptide analysis of the β-LG glucose system identified some peptides, derived from cyanogen bromide hydrolysis, as suitable candidates to monitor Faox action in milk-based products. All in all data suggested that non-enzymatic reactions in dairy products might be strongly reduced by implementing Faox enzymes.
Troise, A. D., Dathan, N. A., Fiore, A., Roviello, G., Di Fiore, A., Caira, S., Cuollo, M., De Simone, G., Fogliano, V., & Monti, S. M. (2014). Faox enzymes inhibited Maillard reaction development during storage both in protein glucose model system and low lactose UHT milk. Amino Acids, 46(2), 279–288. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00726-013-1497-x