Hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during consecutive training sessions

Shaun M. Phillips, Dave Skyes, Neil Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)
10 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specif-ic gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrat-ed, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training ap-pears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guide-lines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)817 - 822
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Sports Science & Medicine
Volume13
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2014

Fingerprint

Soccer
Water-Electrolyte Balance
Gravitation
Urine
Pyrus
Sweat
Dehydration
Guidelines

Cite this

@article{af8d69caa4a946c28eb8814af584276d,
title = "Hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during consecutive training sessions",
abstract = "The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specif-ic gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77{\%} on days 1 and 3, and 62{\%} on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1{\%} (range 0-363.6{\%}) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrat-ed, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71{\%} of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1{\%} BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training ap-pears to prevent excessive (≥2{\%} BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guide-lines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.",
author = "Phillips, {Shaun M.} and Dave Skyes and Neil Gibson",
year = "2014",
month = "12",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "817 -- 822",
journal = "Journal of Sports Science and Medicine",
issn = "1303-2968",
publisher = "Department of Sports Medicine, Medical Faculty of Uludag University",

}

Hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during consecutive training sessions. / Phillips, Shaun M.; Skyes, Dave; Gibson, Neil.

In: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, Vol. 13, 01.12.2014, p. 817 - 822.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during consecutive training sessions

AU - Phillips, Shaun M.

AU - Skyes, Dave

AU - Gibson, Neil

PY - 2014/12/1

Y1 - 2014/12/1

N2 - The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specif-ic gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrat-ed, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training ap-pears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guide-lines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.

AB - The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specif-ic gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05). Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05). Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6%) of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrat-ed, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM). Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training ap-pears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guide-lines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 817

EP - 822

JO - Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

JF - Journal of Sports Science and Medicine

SN - 1303-2968

ER -