Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in the Chad Basin around Maiduguri, Nigeria

A. Bakari

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    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources of contamination on the groundwater quality of the upper unconfined aquifer system of the Chad Basin around Maiduguri. This has been determined by obtaining a total of 20 groundwater samples over a 4 months period in 2 different sites (Moduganari and Gwange) in Maiduguri. Groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, TDS, major cations (Na+, Ca+2, K+, and Mg+2), major anions (Cl-, SO4-2, PO4-2, NO3 -, CO3- and HCO3-). Results obtained showed that the water in site 1 is alkaline (pH 6.61 to 7.57), while that of site 2 ranged from slightly acidic to alkaline (pH 6.2 to 7.31). Concentration of all the cations and anions in both sites vary significantly (p<0.05) across all the samples. Sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium as well as carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater samples analysed is as a result of natural processes such as ion-exchange processes, silicate weathering and calcium carbonate dissolution. Nitrate, chloride, sulphate and phosphate indicate the impact of above ground anthropogenic activities on the groundwater. Water quality results for both sites showed that concentration of major ions significantly fall below the WHO standard limit. In total, 75% of the water samples is Calcium-Bicarbonate (Ca-HCO3) type, while the remaining 25% are of sodium-bicarbonate (Na-HCO3) type.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article number3A042A242784
    Pages (from-to)1-12
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Geology and Mining Research
    Volume6
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Jan 2014

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    groundwater
    bicarbonate
    basin
    anion
    cation
    calcium
    sodium
    unconfined aquifer
    calcium carbonate
    magnesium
    ion exchange
    human activity
    potassium
    weathering
    silicate
    dissolution
    chloride
    phosphate
    sulfate
    nitrate

    Cite this

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    abstract = "The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources of contamination on the groundwater quality of the upper unconfined aquifer system of the Chad Basin around Maiduguri. This has been determined by obtaining a total of 20 groundwater samples over a 4 months period in 2 different sites (Moduganari and Gwange) in Maiduguri. Groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, TDS, major cations (Na+, Ca+2, K+, and Mg+2), major anions (Cl-, SO4-2, PO4-2, NO3 -, CO3- and HCO3-). Results obtained showed that the water in site 1 is alkaline (pH 6.61 to 7.57), while that of site 2 ranged from slightly acidic to alkaline (pH 6.2 to 7.31). Concentration of all the cations and anions in both sites vary significantly (p<0.05) across all the samples. Sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium as well as carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater samples analysed is as a result of natural processes such as ion-exchange processes, silicate weathering and calcium carbonate dissolution. Nitrate, chloride, sulphate and phosphate indicate the impact of above ground anthropogenic activities on the groundwater. Water quality results for both sites showed that concentration of major ions significantly fall below the WHO standard limit. In total, 75{\%} of the water samples is Calcium-Bicarbonate (Ca-HCO3) type, while the remaining 25{\%} are of sodium-bicarbonate (Na-HCO3) type.",
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    Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in the Chad Basin around Maiduguri, Nigeria. / Bakari, A.

    In: Journal of Geology and Mining Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, 3A042A242784, 21.01.2014, p. 1-12.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AB - The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of anthropogenic and natural sources of contamination on the groundwater quality of the upper unconfined aquifer system of the Chad Basin around Maiduguri. This has been determined by obtaining a total of 20 groundwater samples over a 4 months period in 2 different sites (Moduganari and Gwange) in Maiduguri. Groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, TDS, major cations (Na+, Ca+2, K+, and Mg+2), major anions (Cl-, SO4-2, PO4-2, NO3 -, CO3- and HCO3-). Results obtained showed that the water in site 1 is alkaline (pH 6.61 to 7.57), while that of site 2 ranged from slightly acidic to alkaline (pH 6.2 to 7.31). Concentration of all the cations and anions in both sites vary significantly (p<0.05) across all the samples. Sodium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium as well as carbonate and bicarbonate concentrations in the groundwater samples analysed is as a result of natural processes such as ion-exchange processes, silicate weathering and calcium carbonate dissolution. Nitrate, chloride, sulphate and phosphate indicate the impact of above ground anthropogenic activities on the groundwater. Water quality results for both sites showed that concentration of major ions significantly fall below the WHO standard limit. In total, 75% of the water samples is Calcium-Bicarbonate (Ca-HCO3) type, while the remaining 25% are of sodium-bicarbonate (Na-HCO3) type.

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