Investigating the removal of some pharmaceutical compounds in hospital wastewater treatment plants operating in Saudi Arabia

Hamed M. Al Qarni, Phillip J. Collier, Juliette O'Keeffe, Joseph C. Akunna*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

The concentrations of 12 pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, erythromycin, cyclophosphamide, paracetamol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, caffeine, clarithromycin, lidocaine, sulfamethoxazole and Nacetylsulfamethoxazol (NACS)) were investigated in the influents and effluents of two hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. The majority of the target analytes were detected in the influent samples apart from bezafibrate, cyclophosphamide, and erythromycin. Caffeine and paracetamol were detected in the influent at particularly high concentrations up to 75 and 12 ug/L, respectively. High removal efficiencies of the pharmaceutical compounds were observed in both HWWTPs, with greater than 90 % removal on average. Paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole, NACS, ciprofloxacin, and caffeine were eliminated by between >95 and >99 % on average. Atenolol, carbamazepine, and clarithromycin were eliminated by >86 % on average. Of particular interest were the high removal efficiencies of carbamazepine and antibiotics that were achieved by the HWWTPs; these compounds have been reported to be relatively recalcitrant to biological treatment and are generally only partially removed. Elevated temperatures and high levels of sunlight were considered to be the main factors that enhanced the removal of these compounds.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13003-13014
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Volume23
Issue number13
Early online date21 Mar 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 Mar 2016

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Caffeine
Saudi Arabia
Acetaminophen
Waste Water
Wastewater treatment
Drug products
Sulfamethoxazole
Wastewater
drug
Atenolol
Carbamazepine
Erythromycin
Ciprofloxacin
wastewater
Cyclophosphamide
Antibiotics
Bezafibrate
Pharmaceutical Preparations
antibiotics
Effluents

Cite this

@article{01eec05f64584c42b16216c9c233201b,
title = "Investigating the removal of some pharmaceutical compounds in hospital wastewater treatment plants operating in Saudi Arabia",
abstract = "The concentrations of 12 pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, erythromycin, cyclophosphamide, paracetamol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, caffeine, clarithromycin, lidocaine, sulfamethoxazole and Nacetylsulfamethoxazol (NACS)) were investigated in the influents and effluents of two hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. The majority of the target analytes were detected in the influent samples apart from bezafibrate, cyclophosphamide, and erythromycin. Caffeine and paracetamol were detected in the influent at particularly high concentrations up to 75 and 12 ug/L, respectively. High removal efficiencies of the pharmaceutical compounds were observed in both HWWTPs, with greater than 90 {\%} removal on average. Paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole, NACS, ciprofloxacin, and caffeine were eliminated by between >95 and >99 {\%} on average. Atenolol, carbamazepine, and clarithromycin were eliminated by >86 {\%} on average. Of particular interest were the high removal efficiencies of carbamazepine and antibiotics that were achieved by the HWWTPs; these compounds have been reported to be relatively recalcitrant to biological treatment and are generally only partially removed. Elevated temperatures and high levels of sunlight were considered to be the main factors that enhanced the removal of these compounds.",
author = "{Al Qarni}, {Hamed M.} and Collier, {Phillip J.} and Juliette O'Keeffe and Akunna, {Joseph C.}",
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Investigating the removal of some pharmaceutical compounds in hospital wastewater treatment plants operating in Saudi Arabia. / Al Qarni, Hamed M.; Collier, Phillip J.; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Akunna, Joseph C.

In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 23, No. 13, 21.03.2016, p. 13003-13014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Investigating the removal of some pharmaceutical compounds in hospital wastewater treatment plants operating in Saudi Arabia

AU - Al Qarni, Hamed M.

AU - Collier, Phillip J.

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AB - The concentrations of 12 pharmaceutical compounds (atenolol, erythromycin, cyclophosphamide, paracetamol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, caffeine, clarithromycin, lidocaine, sulfamethoxazole and Nacetylsulfamethoxazol (NACS)) were investigated in the influents and effluents of two hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWWTPs) in Saudi Arabia. The majority of the target analytes were detected in the influent samples apart from bezafibrate, cyclophosphamide, and erythromycin. Caffeine and paracetamol were detected in the influent at particularly high concentrations up to 75 and 12 ug/L, respectively. High removal efficiencies of the pharmaceutical compounds were observed in both HWWTPs, with greater than 90 % removal on average. Paracetamol, sulfamethoxazole, NACS, ciprofloxacin, and caffeine were eliminated by between >95 and >99 % on average. Atenolol, carbamazepine, and clarithromycin were eliminated by >86 % on average. Of particular interest were the high removal efficiencies of carbamazepine and antibiotics that were achieved by the HWWTPs; these compounds have been reported to be relatively recalcitrant to biological treatment and are generally only partially removed. Elevated temperatures and high levels of sunlight were considered to be the main factors that enhanced the removal of these compounds.

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