Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand

V. G. Moon, M. J. Cunningham, J. Wyatt, D. J. Lowe, T. Mörz, M. E. Jorat

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

In the Tauranga region sensitive soil failures commonly occur after heavy rainfall events, causing considerable infrastructure damage. Several notable landslides include a large failure at
Bramley Drive, Omokoroa in 1979, the Ruahihi Canal collapse in 1981, and numerous landslides in May 2005; recently the Bramley Drive scarp was reactivated in 2011. These
failures are associated with materials loosely classified as the Pahoia Tephras - a mixture of rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits of approximately 1 Ma.

The common link with extreme rainfall events suggests a pore water pressure control on the initiation of these failures. Recent research on the structure of the soils shows a dominance of
halloysite clay minerals packed loosely in arrangements with high porosity (51 – 77 %), but with almost entirely micropores. This leads us to conclude that the permeability is very low, and
the materials remain continuously wet. The formation of halloysite is encouraged by a wet environment with no episodes of drying, supporting this assumption.

A high-resolution CPT trace at Bramley Drive indicates induced pore water pressures rising steadily to a peak at approximately 25 m depth; this depth coincides with the base of the
landslide scarp. We infer that elevated pore water pressures develop within this single, thick aquifer, triggering failure through reduced effective stresses. The inactive halloysite clay
mineral results in low plasticity indices (13 – 44 %) and hence high liquidity indices (1.2 – 2.4) due to the saturated pore space; remoulding following failure is sudden and dramatic and results in large debris runout distances.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium
Subtitle of host publicationHanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters
EditorsC. Y. Chin
Place of PublicationWellington
PublisherInstitution of Professional Engineers New Zealand
Pages537-544
Number of pages8
Volume2
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes
Event19th New Zealand Geotechnical Society Symposium: Hanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters - Millennium Hotel, Queenstown, New Zealand
Duration: 21 Nov 201322 Nov 2013
Conference number: 19

Publication series

Name
PublisherInstitution of Professional Engineers New Zealand
Number1
Volume38
ISSN (Print)0111-9532

Other

Other19th New Zealand Geotechnical Society Symposium
Abbreviated title19th NZGS Symposium
CountryNew Zealand
CityQueenstown
Period21/11/1322/11/13

Fingerprint

landslide
halloysite
porewater
rainfall
pyroclastic deposit
soil
pore space
effective stress
plasticity
canal
clay mineral
porosity
infrastructure
aquifer
permeability
damage
material
index
drying

Cite this

Moon, V. G., Cunningham, M. J., Wyatt, J., Lowe, D. J., Mörz, T., & Jorat, M. E. (2013). Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand. In C. Y. Chin (Ed.), Proceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium: Hanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters (Vol. 2, pp. 537-544). Wellington: Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand.
Moon, V. G. ; Cunningham, M. J. ; Wyatt, J. ; Lowe, D. J. ; Mörz, T. ; Jorat, M. E. / Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand. Proceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium: Hanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters. editor / C. Y. Chin. Vol. 2 Wellington : Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand, 2013. pp. 537-544
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title = "Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand",
abstract = "In the Tauranga region sensitive soil failures commonly occur after heavy rainfall events, causing considerable infrastructure damage. Several notable landslides include a large failure atBramley Drive, Omokoroa in 1979, the Ruahihi Canal collapse in 1981, and numerous landslides in May 2005; recently the Bramley Drive scarp was reactivated in 2011. Thesefailures are associated with materials loosely classified as the Pahoia Tephras - a mixture of rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits of approximately 1 Ma.The common link with extreme rainfall events suggests a pore water pressure control on the initiation of these failures. Recent research on the structure of the soils shows a dominance ofhalloysite clay minerals packed loosely in arrangements with high porosity (51 – 77 {\%}), but with almost entirely micropores. This leads us to conclude that the permeability is very low, andthe materials remain continuously wet. The formation of halloysite is encouraged by a wet environment with no episodes of drying, supporting this assumption.A high-resolution CPT trace at Bramley Drive indicates induced pore water pressures rising steadily to a peak at approximately 25 m depth; this depth coincides with the base of thelandslide scarp. We infer that elevated pore water pressures develop within this single, thick aquifer, triggering failure through reduced effective stresses. The inactive halloysite claymineral results in low plasticity indices (13 – 44 {\%}) and hence high liquidity indices (1.2 – 2.4) due to the saturated pore space; remoulding following failure is sudden and dramatic and results in large debris runout distances.",
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Moon, VG, Cunningham, MJ, Wyatt, J, Lowe, DJ, Mörz, T & Jorat, ME 2013, Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand. in CY Chin (ed.), Proceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium: Hanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters. vol. 2, Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand, Wellington, pp. 537-544, 19th New Zealand Geotechnical Society Symposium, Queenstown, New Zealand, 21/11/13.

Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand. / Moon, V. G.; Cunningham, M. J.; Wyatt, J.; Lowe, D. J.; Mörz, T.; Jorat, M. E.

Proceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium: Hanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters. ed. / C. Y. Chin. Vol. 2 Wellington : Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand, 2013. p. 537-544.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand

AU - Moon, V. G.

AU - Cunningham, M. J.

AU - Wyatt, J.

AU - Lowe, D. J.

AU - Mörz, T.

AU - Jorat, M. E.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - In the Tauranga region sensitive soil failures commonly occur after heavy rainfall events, causing considerable infrastructure damage. Several notable landslides include a large failure atBramley Drive, Omokoroa in 1979, the Ruahihi Canal collapse in 1981, and numerous landslides in May 2005; recently the Bramley Drive scarp was reactivated in 2011. Thesefailures are associated with materials loosely classified as the Pahoia Tephras - a mixture of rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits of approximately 1 Ma.The common link with extreme rainfall events suggests a pore water pressure control on the initiation of these failures. Recent research on the structure of the soils shows a dominance ofhalloysite clay minerals packed loosely in arrangements with high porosity (51 – 77 %), but with almost entirely micropores. This leads us to conclude that the permeability is very low, andthe materials remain continuously wet. The formation of halloysite is encouraged by a wet environment with no episodes of drying, supporting this assumption.A high-resolution CPT trace at Bramley Drive indicates induced pore water pressures rising steadily to a peak at approximately 25 m depth; this depth coincides with the base of thelandslide scarp. We infer that elevated pore water pressures develop within this single, thick aquifer, triggering failure through reduced effective stresses. The inactive halloysite claymineral results in low plasticity indices (13 – 44 %) and hence high liquidity indices (1.2 – 2.4) due to the saturated pore space; remoulding following failure is sudden and dramatic and results in large debris runout distances.

AB - In the Tauranga region sensitive soil failures commonly occur after heavy rainfall events, causing considerable infrastructure damage. Several notable landslides include a large failure atBramley Drive, Omokoroa in 1979, the Ruahihi Canal collapse in 1981, and numerous landslides in May 2005; recently the Bramley Drive scarp was reactivated in 2011. Thesefailures are associated with materials loosely classified as the Pahoia Tephras - a mixture of rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits of approximately 1 Ma.The common link with extreme rainfall events suggests a pore water pressure control on the initiation of these failures. Recent research on the structure of the soils shows a dominance ofhalloysite clay minerals packed loosely in arrangements with high porosity (51 – 77 %), but with almost entirely micropores. This leads us to conclude that the permeability is very low, andthe materials remain continuously wet. The formation of halloysite is encouraged by a wet environment with no episodes of drying, supporting this assumption.A high-resolution CPT trace at Bramley Drive indicates induced pore water pressures rising steadily to a peak at approximately 25 m depth; this depth coincides with the base of thelandslide scarp. We infer that elevated pore water pressures develop within this single, thick aquifer, triggering failure through reduced effective stresses. The inactive halloysite claymineral results in low plasticity indices (13 – 44 %) and hence high liquidity indices (1.2 – 2.4) due to the saturated pore space; remoulding following failure is sudden and dramatic and results in large debris runout distances.

M3 - Conference contribution

VL - 2

SP - 537

EP - 544

BT - Proceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium

A2 - Chin, C. Y.

PB - Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand

CY - Wellington

ER -

Moon VG, Cunningham MJ, Wyatt J, Lowe DJ, Mörz T, Jorat ME. Landslides in sensitive soils, Tauranga, New Zealand. In Chin CY, editor, Proceedings of the 19th NZGS Geotechnical Symposium: Hanging by a thread? Lifelines, infrastructure and natural disasters. Vol. 2. Wellington: Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand. 2013. p. 537-544