In this study, the performance and long-time evaluation of solid-state composite (SSC) reference electrodes were investigated. The stability of all the SSC reference electrodes was continuously monitored by using potentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods over a period of several months. A multi-solution protocol was used to study the influence of the ionic strength of the sample solution, ion charge, and mobility, and the sample pH values on the performance of the reference electrodes. The SSC reference electrodes were used in the calibration of commercial indicator electrodes for different ions at different temperatures. The concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Cl- ions and pH values were measured in river water samples at different temperatures using the SSC reference electrodes. The obtained results for the same samples were compared with the results given by an independent laboratory specialized in routine water analyses. The agreement between the results was very good and even better than the case where commercial reference electrodes were used. Our study showed that the SSC reference electrodes exhibit good long-term stability and excellent performance, both in the calibrations and analyses of environmental samples.
- Reference electrode
- Long-time evaluation