Long-time evaluation of solid-state composite reference electrodes

Slim Blidi, Kim Granholm, Tomasz Sokalski*, Zekra Mousavi, Andrzej Lewenstam, Ivo Leito, Johan Bobacka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
43 Downloads (Pure)


In this study, the performance and long-time evaluation of solid-state composite (SSC) reference electrodes were investigated. The stability of all the SSC reference electrodes was continuously monitored by using potentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods over a period of several months. A multi-solution protocol was used to study the influence of the ionic strength of the sample solution, ion charge, and mobility, and the sample pH values on the performance of the reference electrodes. The SSC reference electrodes were used in the calibration of commercial indicator electrodes for different ions at different temperatures. The concentrations of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Cl- ions and pH values were measured in river water samples at different temperatures using the SSC reference electrodes. The obtained results for the same samples were compared with the results given by an independent laboratory specialized in routine water analyses. The agreement between the results was very good and even better than the case where commercial reference electrodes were used. Our study showed that the SSC reference electrodes exhibit good long-term stability and excellent performance, both in the calibrations and analyses of environmental samples.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere569
Number of pages11
Issue number6
Early online date30 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - 30 May 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Reference electrode
  • Solid-state
  • Long-time evaluation


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