Human resource management (HRM) can be described within organizational and cultural contexts. Increasing interest in international HRM suggests that employment policies in different countries have been perceived as meeting a trend of uniform characteristics in the management of people. By reviewing some of the recent literature on HRM, examining the practice of HRM in the USA, Japan and Europe, and drawing from the National Panels of HRM in the Czech Republic this paper discusses some of the emerging difficulties in developing an international model of HRM. We suggest that in employment practices there are basic characteristics of HRM: a) empowerment, b) individualism, c) representation, d) strategic awareness, and e) problem-orientation. They are used as parameters for investigating the extent to which IHRM can be materialised. They also help to identify prospects of Czech HRM towards the EU. We conclude that there are strong grounds for convergence as well as divergence in the practice of HRM, because of cultural influences and vital drivers for the emergence of international HRM such as the political orientations, economic pressures, technological advancements and the spread of multinational companies, tending to bring culturally diverse countries together.
- Factors of convergence and divergence
- HRM policies and practices
- Human resource management
- International HRM