Copper lost in foliar wash-off from vine leaves treated with Cu-based fungicides was analyzed with a single-drop rainfall simulator. The temporal losses of the particulate Cu (CuP) and the solution Cu (CuS) from raindrop strikes on leaves were modeled using a Poisson point process. This model estimated maximum detachment rates of 0.82 ng CuP and 0.033 ng CuS per raindrop. The total amount of Cu (CuT) in the leaves before rainfall ranged between 0.4 and 4.4 g Cu kg−1 dry weight. Wash-off reduced the amount of CuT present in the leaves by 0.6 g kg−1. Particulate losses of CuT ranged from 75 to 90%, while soluble losses of CuT ranged from 10 to 25%. The kinetic energy of the raindrops influenced the loss of CuS but not the loss of CuP. The Poisson point approach can provide an interesting starting point to model non-point source pollution produced from agricultural chemicals washed-off by rain.
Pérez-Rodríguez, P., Soto-Gómez, D., López-Periago, J. E., & Paradelo, M. (2015). Modeling raindrop strike performance on copper wash-off from vine leaves. Journal of Environmental Management, 150, 472-478. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.12.036