M3+-modified LiMn2O4 spinel intercalation cathodes: I. Admetal effects on morphology and electrochemical performance

A. D. Robertson*, S. H. Lu, W. F. Averill, W. F. Howard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

132 Citations (Scopus)


Low levels of trivalent cations were utilized to stabilize LiMn2O4 spinel cathode materials against capacity decline during electrochemical cycling. Of the several single-phase products obtained, only those with Cr3+ and Ga3+ prevented capacity fade, and only LiCr0.02Mn1.98O4 exhibited acceptable initial reversible capacity. The external particle morphology was unchanged by the preparation or the admetal, and the internal structures were all converted to cong tou (onion) configurations during product synthesis. Grain size played a surprising role in cathode performance: <25 μm material had at least 10% lower capacity than larger or as-prepared Cr-doped LiMn2O4.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3500-3505
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 1997
Externally publishedYes


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