National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing

Christopher D. Watkins, Juan David Leongómez, Jeanne Bovet, Agnieszka Zelazniewicz, Max Korbmacher, Marco Antonio Correa Varella, Ana Maria Fernandez, Danielle Wagstaff, Samuela Bolgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Romantic mouth-to-mouth kissing is culturally widespread, although not a human universal, and may play a functional role in assessing partner health and maintaining long-term pair bonds. Use and appreciation of kissing may therefore vary according to whether the environment places a premium on good health and partner investment. Here, we test for cultural variation (13 countries from six continents) in these behaviours/attitudes according to national health (historical pathogen prevalence) and both absolute (GDP) and relative wealth (GINI). Our data reveal that kissing is valued more in established relationships than it is valued during courtship. Also, consistent with the pair bonding hypothesis of the function of romantic kissing, relative poverty (income inequality) predicts frequency of kissing across romantic relationships. When aggregated, the predicted relationship between income inequality and kissing frequency (r=.67, BCa 95%CI[.32,.89]) was over five times the size of the null correlations between income inequality and frequency of hugging/cuddling and sex. As social complexity requires monitoring resource competition among large groups and predicts kissing prevalence in remote societies, this gesture may be important in the maintenance of long-term pair bonds in specific environments.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6698
Number of pages9
JournalScientific Reports
Volume9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2019

Fingerprint

Pair Bond
Mouth
Health
Courtship
Gestures
Poverty

Cite this

Watkins, C. D., Leongómez, J. D., Bovet, J., Zelazniewicz, A., Korbmacher, M., Correa Varella, M. A., ... Bolgan, S. (2019). National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing. Scientific Reports, 9, [6698]. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43267-7
Watkins, Christopher D. ; Leongómez, Juan David ; Bovet, Jeanne ; Zelazniewicz, Agnieszka ; Korbmacher, Max ; Correa Varella, Marco Antonio ; Fernandez, Ana Maria ; Wagstaff, Danielle ; Bolgan, Samuela. / National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing. In: Scientific Reports. 2019 ; Vol. 9.
@article{2654044f55e34da780244b1c15e1bd64,
title = "National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing",
abstract = "Romantic mouth-to-mouth kissing is culturally widespread, although not a human universal, and may play a functional role in assessing partner health and maintaining long-term pair bonds. Use and appreciation of kissing may therefore vary according to whether the environment places a premium on good health and partner investment. Here, we test for cultural variation (13 countries from six continents) in these behaviours/attitudes according to national health (historical pathogen prevalence) and both absolute (GDP) and relative wealth (GINI). Our data reveal that kissing is valued more in established relationships than it is valued during courtship. Also, consistent with the pair bonding hypothesis of the function of romantic kissing, relative poverty (income inequality) predicts frequency of kissing across romantic relationships. When aggregated, the predicted relationship between income inequality and kissing frequency (r=.67, BCa 95{\%}CI[.32,.89]) was over five times the size of the null correlations between income inequality and frequency of hugging/cuddling and sex. As social complexity requires monitoring resource competition among large groups and predicts kissing prevalence in remote societies, this gesture may be important in the maintenance of long-term pair bonds in specific environments.",
author = "Watkins, {Christopher D.} and Leong{\'o}mez, {Juan David} and Jeanne Bovet and Agnieszka Zelazniewicz and Max Korbmacher and {Correa Varella}, {Marco Antonio} and Fernandez, {Ana Maria} and Danielle Wagstaff and Samuela Bolgan",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "30",
doi = "10.1038/s41598-019-43267-7",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",

}

Watkins, CD, Leongómez, JD, Bovet, J, Zelazniewicz, A, Korbmacher, M, Correa Varella, MA, Fernandez, AM, Wagstaff, D & Bolgan, S 2019, 'National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing' Scientific Reports, vol. 9, 6698. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43267-7

National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing. / Watkins, Christopher D.; Leongómez, Juan David; Bovet, Jeanne; Zelazniewicz, Agnieszka; Korbmacher, Max ; Correa Varella, Marco Antonio; Fernandez, Ana Maria; Wagstaff, Danielle; Bolgan, Samuela.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, 6698, 30.04.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing

AU - Watkins, Christopher D.

AU - Leongómez, Juan David

AU - Bovet, Jeanne

AU - Zelazniewicz, Agnieszka

AU - Korbmacher, Max

AU - Correa Varella, Marco Antonio

AU - Fernandez, Ana Maria

AU - Wagstaff, Danielle

AU - Bolgan, Samuela

PY - 2019/4/30

Y1 - 2019/4/30

N2 - Romantic mouth-to-mouth kissing is culturally widespread, although not a human universal, and may play a functional role in assessing partner health and maintaining long-term pair bonds. Use and appreciation of kissing may therefore vary according to whether the environment places a premium on good health and partner investment. Here, we test for cultural variation (13 countries from six continents) in these behaviours/attitudes according to national health (historical pathogen prevalence) and both absolute (GDP) and relative wealth (GINI). Our data reveal that kissing is valued more in established relationships than it is valued during courtship. Also, consistent with the pair bonding hypothesis of the function of romantic kissing, relative poverty (income inequality) predicts frequency of kissing across romantic relationships. When aggregated, the predicted relationship between income inequality and kissing frequency (r=.67, BCa 95%CI[.32,.89]) was over five times the size of the null correlations between income inequality and frequency of hugging/cuddling and sex. As social complexity requires monitoring resource competition among large groups and predicts kissing prevalence in remote societies, this gesture may be important in the maintenance of long-term pair bonds in specific environments.

AB - Romantic mouth-to-mouth kissing is culturally widespread, although not a human universal, and may play a functional role in assessing partner health and maintaining long-term pair bonds. Use and appreciation of kissing may therefore vary according to whether the environment places a premium on good health and partner investment. Here, we test for cultural variation (13 countries from six continents) in these behaviours/attitudes according to national health (historical pathogen prevalence) and both absolute (GDP) and relative wealth (GINI). Our data reveal that kissing is valued more in established relationships than it is valued during courtship. Also, consistent with the pair bonding hypothesis of the function of romantic kissing, relative poverty (income inequality) predicts frequency of kissing across romantic relationships. When aggregated, the predicted relationship between income inequality and kissing frequency (r=.67, BCa 95%CI[.32,.89]) was over five times the size of the null correlations between income inequality and frequency of hugging/cuddling and sex. As social complexity requires monitoring resource competition among large groups and predicts kissing prevalence in remote societies, this gesture may be important in the maintenance of long-term pair bonds in specific environments.

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-019-43267-7

DO - 10.1038/s41598-019-43267-7

M3 - Article

VL - 9

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

M1 - 6698

ER -

Watkins CD, Leongómez JD, Bovet J, Zelazniewicz A, Korbmacher M, Correa Varella MA et al. National income inequality predicts cultural variation in mouth to mouth kissing. Scientific Reports. 2019 Apr 30;9. 6698. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43267-7