A second autonomous replicon of P307, RepFIB, has been isolated that has significant homology with other replicons in IncFI group plasmids. Eleven homologous repeats of 21 base pairs are present on the sequence and flank an open reading frame capable of coding for a protein of about Mr = 40,000. This protein was identified by maxicell analysis of cloned RepFIB. A series of deletion mutations of RepFIB were inserted into a DNA polymerase I-dependent vector and examined for their replication proficiency in a polA1 strain. These experiments defined a minimal replication region of 1.6 kilobases which includes the three repeats immediately upstream and downstream of the open reading frame. Deletion of a second set of repeats further downstream doubled the copy number of a chimeric plasmid replicating under RepFIB control. It was concluded that these repeats control the copy number of the replicon. Incompatibility tests showed that all three sets of repeats could express incompatibility with a resident RepFIB plasmid.