The influence of process variables (pea starch, guar gum and glycerol) on the viscosity (V), solubility (SOL), moisture content (MC), transparency (TR), Hunter parameters (L, a, and b), total color difference (ΔE), yellowness index (YI), and whiteness index (WI) of the pea starch based edible films was studied using three factors with three level Box–Behnken response surface design. The individual linear effect of pea starch, guar and glycerol was significant (p < 0.05) on all the responses. However, a value was only significantly (p < 0.05) affected by pea starch and guar gum in a positive and negative linear term, respectively. The effect of interaction of starch × glycerol was also significant (p < 0.05) on TR of edible films. Interaction between independent variables starch × guar gum had a significant impact on the b and YI values. The quadratic regression coefficient of pea starch showed a significant effect (p < 0.05) on V, MC, L, b, ΔE, YI, and WI; glycerol level on ΔE and WI; and guar gum on ΔE and SOL value. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the second order polynomial models were developed from the experimental design with reliable and satisfactory fit with the corresponding experimental data and high coefficient of determination (R2) values (>0.93). Three-dimensional response surface plots were established to investigate the relationship between process variables and the responses. The optimized conditions with the goal of maximizing TR and minimizing SOL, YI and MC were 2.5 g pea starch, 25% glycerol and 0.3 g guar gum. Results revealed that pea starch/guar gum edible films with appropriate physical and optical characteristics can be effectively produced and successfully applied in the food packaging industry.
Saberi, B., Thakur, R., Vuong, Q. V., Chockchaisawasdee, S., Golding, J. B., Scarlett, C. J., & Stathopoulos, C. E. (2016). Optimization of physical and optical properties of biodegradable edible films based on pea starch and guar gum. Industrial Crops Today, 86, 342-352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.04.015