Thermal treatment of proteinaceous foods generates heat-induced Maillard reaction substances including toxic advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and heterocyclic amines (HAs). It is known that plant phenolic compounds may influence Maillard reaction. This study investigated the impact of lingonberry leaf extracts on the formation of Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Nε-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) in milk model system and HAs in meat-protein and meat model systems. In addition, lingonberry leaf extracts obtained by different solvents were characterized by radical scavenging, Folin-Ciocalteu assays and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography quadruple-time-of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-MS). Water extract (WE) stronger suppressed CML than furosine formation in milk model system: CML levels were reduced by nearly 40%. Moreover, quinic acid and catechin which were abundant in WE, were effective in inhibiting CML and furosine formation. WE and acetone extract (AE) at 10 mg/mL significantly inhibited HAs formation in both model systems. However, higher suppressing effect on HAs formation showed AE which had lower antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content values than WE. WE contained higher amounts of hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins and flavonols, while AE was richer in flavan-3-ols and arbutin derivatives. It indicates that the composition of phenolics might be a major factor for explaining different effect of extracts from the same plant on HAs formation. In general, the results suggest that lingonberry leaves is a promising source of phytochemicals for inhibiting toxic Maillard reaction products and enriching foods with plant bioactive compounds.
Račkauskienė, I., Pukalskas, A., Fiore, A., Troise, A. D., & Venskutonis, P. R. (2019). Phytochemical-rich antioxidant extracts of Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. leaves inhibit the formation of toxic Maillard reaction products in food models. Journal of Food Science, 84(12), 3494-3503. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.14805