Breast self-examination (BSE) is a method of early detection of breast cancer. Although BSE is recommended for all women, it is mostly suitable and readily available for younger women. BSE beliefs and practices of women in Scotland, a country with organised health campaigns about BSE, were compared with those of women in Greece, a country without such campaigns. Our sample consisted of 68 university students in Scotland and Greece, aged 18 to 26 years old. All participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, health history, knowledge, BSE practice, health beliefs, and health-related personality. BSE practice was found to be associated with different variables across the two cultural groups. Adherence rates were found particularly higher than previous reports and BSE practice did not differ significantly between women in Scotland and Greece. Nevertheless, the two groups differed significantly in their knowledge, attitudes toward BSE, and health-related personality. On the basis of these findings, cultural factors should be considered in organising BSE campaigns. Also the present findings identified BSE-related beliefs and practices specific to younger age groups. These could be considered and addressed in order to organise BSE campaigns in Greece and improve future UK programs especially tailored for this age group.