Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities: variables predicting community or secure provision

Derek Carson, William R. Lindsay, Gregory O'Brien, Anthony J. Holland, John L. Taylor, Jessica R. Wheeler, Claire Middleton, Karen Price, Lesley Steptoe, Susan Johnston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background There is a need for research to promote an understanding among service developers on why people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are referred to offender services in order for them to receive appropriate assessment and treatment. Previous studies investigating referrals into forensic ID services have concentrated on referral sources and administrative variables such as legal status. Aims To construct a predictive model for choice of service referral based on a comprehensive range of information about the clientele. Method We conducted a case record study of 336 people referred to community services and 141 to secure provision. We gathered information on referral source, demographics, diagnosis, index behaviour, prior problem behaviours and history of abuse. Results Comparisons revealed 19 candidate variables which were then entered into multivariate logistic regression. The resulting model retained six variables: community living at time of referral, physical aggression, being charged, referral from tertiary health care, diverse problem behaviour and IQ <50, which correctly predicted the referral pathway for 85.7% of cases. Conclusions An index act of physical aggression and a history of diversity of problem behaviours as predictors against the likelihood of community service referral suggest that professionals have similar concerns about people with ID as they do about their more average offending peers; however, the more severe levels of ID mitigated in favour of community referral, regardless. Offenders with ID tend to be referred within levels of service rather than between them, for example, form tertiary services into generic community services.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-50
Number of pages12
JournalCriminal Behavior and Mental Health
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2010

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Intellectual Disability
Referral and Consultation
Social Welfare
Disabled Persons
Aggression
Jurisprudence
Tertiary Healthcare
Logistic Models
Demography
Delivery of Health Care

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Carson, D., Lindsay, W. R., O'Brien, G., Holland, A. J., Taylor, J. L., Wheeler, J. R., ... Johnston, S. (2010). Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities: variables predicting community or secure provision. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 20(1), 39-50. DOI: 10.1002/cbm.755

Carson, Derek; Lindsay, William R.; O'Brien, Gregory; Holland, Anthony J.; Taylor, John L.; Wheeler, Jessica R.; Middleton, Claire; Price, Karen; Steptoe, Lesley; Johnston, Susan / Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities : variables predicting community or secure provision.

In: Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, Vol. 20, No. 1, 02.2010, p. 39-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities: variables predicting community or secure provision",
abstract = "Background There is a need for research to promote an understanding among service developers on why people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are referred to offender services in order for them to receive appropriate assessment and treatment. Previous studies investigating referrals into forensic ID services have concentrated on referral sources and administrative variables such as legal status. Aims To construct a predictive model for choice of service referral based on a comprehensive range of information about the clientele. Method We conducted a case record study of 336 people referred to community services and 141 to secure provision. We gathered information on referral source, demographics, diagnosis, index behaviour, prior problem behaviours and history of abuse. Results Comparisons revealed 19 candidate variables which were then entered into multivariate logistic regression. The resulting model retained six variables: community living at time of referral, physical aggression, being charged, referral from tertiary health care, diverse problem behaviour and IQ <50, which correctly predicted the referral pathway for 85.7% of cases. Conclusions An index act of physical aggression and a history of diversity of problem behaviours as predictors against the likelihood of community service referral suggest that professionals have similar concerns about people with ID as they do about their more average offending peers; however, the more severe levels of ID mitigated in favour of community referral, regardless. Offenders with ID tend to be referred within levels of service rather than between them, for example, form tertiary services into generic community services.",
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Carson, D, Lindsay, WR, O'Brien, G, Holland, AJ, Taylor, JL, Wheeler, JR, Middleton, C, Price, K, Steptoe, L & Johnston, S 2010, 'Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities: variables predicting community or secure provision' Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, vol 20, no. 1, pp. 39-50. DOI: 10.1002/cbm.755

Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities : variables predicting community or secure provision. / Carson, Derek; Lindsay, William R.; O'Brien, Gregory; Holland, Anthony J.; Taylor, John L.; Wheeler, Jessica R.; Middleton, Claire; Price, Karen; Steptoe, Lesley; Johnston, Susan.

In: Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, Vol. 20, No. 1, 02.2010, p. 39-50.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities

T2 - Criminal Behavior and Mental Health

AU - Carson,Derek

AU - Lindsay,William R.

AU - O'Brien,Gregory

AU - Holland,Anthony J.

AU - Taylor,John L.

AU - Wheeler,Jessica R.

AU - Middleton,Claire

AU - Price,Karen

AU - Steptoe,Lesley

AU - Johnston,Susan

PY - 2010/2

Y1 - 2010/2

N2 - Background There is a need for research to promote an understanding among service developers on why people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are referred to offender services in order for them to receive appropriate assessment and treatment. Previous studies investigating referrals into forensic ID services have concentrated on referral sources and administrative variables such as legal status. Aims To construct a predictive model for choice of service referral based on a comprehensive range of information about the clientele. Method We conducted a case record study of 336 people referred to community services and 141 to secure provision. We gathered information on referral source, demographics, diagnosis, index behaviour, prior problem behaviours and history of abuse. Results Comparisons revealed 19 candidate variables which were then entered into multivariate logistic regression. The resulting model retained six variables: community living at time of referral, physical aggression, being charged, referral from tertiary health care, diverse problem behaviour and IQ <50, which correctly predicted the referral pathway for 85.7% of cases. Conclusions An index act of physical aggression and a history of diversity of problem behaviours as predictors against the likelihood of community service referral suggest that professionals have similar concerns about people with ID as they do about their more average offending peers; however, the more severe levels of ID mitigated in favour of community referral, regardless. Offenders with ID tend to be referred within levels of service rather than between them, for example, form tertiary services into generic community services.

AB - Background There is a need for research to promote an understanding among service developers on why people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are referred to offender services in order for them to receive appropriate assessment and treatment. Previous studies investigating referrals into forensic ID services have concentrated on referral sources and administrative variables such as legal status. Aims To construct a predictive model for choice of service referral based on a comprehensive range of information about the clientele. Method We conducted a case record study of 336 people referred to community services and 141 to secure provision. We gathered information on referral source, demographics, diagnosis, index behaviour, prior problem behaviours and history of abuse. Results Comparisons revealed 19 candidate variables which were then entered into multivariate logistic regression. The resulting model retained six variables: community living at time of referral, physical aggression, being charged, referral from tertiary health care, diverse problem behaviour and IQ <50, which correctly predicted the referral pathway for 85.7% of cases. Conclusions An index act of physical aggression and a history of diversity of problem behaviours as predictors against the likelihood of community service referral suggest that professionals have similar concerns about people with ID as they do about their more average offending peers; however, the more severe levels of ID mitigated in favour of community referral, regardless. Offenders with ID tend to be referred within levels of service rather than between them, for example, form tertiary services into generic community services.

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JO - Criminal Behavior and Mental Health

JF - Criminal Behavior and Mental Health

SN - 0957-9664

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Carson D, Lindsay WR, O'Brien G, Holland AJ, Taylor JL, Wheeler JR et al. Referrals into services for offenders with intellectual disabilities: variables predicting community or secure provision. Criminal Behavior and Mental Health. 2010 Feb;20(1):39-50. Available from, DOI: 10.1002/cbm.755