Renewable energy in Kazakhstan: challenges to policy and governance

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In light of sluggish progress in developing renewable energy generation in Kazakhstan, this paper aims to investigate the perceptions and opinions of actors in the field regarding policy design and effectiveness of governance for renewables. Known for its vast natural resources including oil, gas, and coal, Kazakhstan has been using fossil fuels as a principal driver of its economy since 1991, when it gained the status of an independent nation. While policy on renewables and governance has been institutionalised since 2006, progress has been slow. Based on the data from in-depth interviews, the study identified that actors viewed policy design as a preliminary, although necessary, stage, subject to adjustments. The investors were concerned with multiple gaps and inconsistencies in the governance structure, and many walked away. The paper concludes that the use of active power of central government appeared insufficient for delivering results in policy design and governance. Making changes to its policy and governance, the government also needs to use its agenda-setting and preference-shaping power to ensure the engagement of investors, interest groups, local communities, and consumers for increasing renewable energy generation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number112051
Number of pages7
JournalEnergy Policy
Early online date4 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2021


  • Kazakhstan
  • Renewable energy
  • Policy
  • Governance
  • Investors


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