Polyphenols of citrus by-products, due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, could be valorized by pharmaceutical and food industries, adding a value to the citrus processing companies. A number of studies have investigated the effect of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions on the recovery of phenolics derived from citrus waste using both organic solvents or mixed aqueous solvent systems. To maximize efficiency, UAE conditions should be tailored to the physical parameters of the solvent(s) employed. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of four UAE parameters: particle size (1.40–2.80 mm), extraction time (10–60 min), extraction temperature (23–50 °C) and ultrasonic power (150–250 W) on the simultaneous recovery of p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, and hesperidin from citrus waste using pure water as a solvent. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for the identification and quantification of the cited compounds. Particle size was determined to be an important parameter affecting compound recovery, with the exception of chlorogenic acid. A particle size of 1.40 mm resulted in the highest recovery of p-coumaric and caffeic acids (0.25 and 0.58 mg/g, respectively), while higher hesperidin yields were achieved from the particle sizes of 2.00 and 1.40 mm (6.44 and 6.27 mg/g, respectively). Extraction temperature significantly affected only the recovery of the flavanone glycoside (P<0.05). As the extraction temperature increased from 30 to 50 °C the recovery of hesperidin increased from 6.59 to 7.84 mg/g, respectively. Neither extraction time nor ultrasonic power significantly affected the recovery of any individual phenolic compound.
Papoutsis, K., Pristijono, P., Golding, J. B., Stathopoulos, C. E., Bowyer, M. C., Scarlett, C. J., & Vuong, Q. V. (2018). Screening the effect of four ultrasound-assisted extraction parameters on hesperidin and phenolic acid content of aqueous citrus pomace extracts. Food Bioscience, 21, 20-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2017.11.001