Human radiosensitivity is a quantitative trait that is generally subject to binomial distribution. Individual radiosensitivity, however, may deviate significantly from the mean (by 2-3 standard deviations). Thus, the same dose of radiation may result in different levels of genotoxic damage (commonly measured as chromosome aberration rates) in different individuals. There is significant genetic component in individual radiosensitivity. It is related to carriership of variant alleles of various single-nucleotide polymorphisms (most of these in genes coding for proteins functioning in DNA damage identification and repair); carriership of different number of alleles producing cumulative effects; amplification of gene copies coding for proteins responsible for radioresistance, mobile genetic elements, and others. Among the other factors influencing individual radioresistance are: radioadaptive response; bystander effect; levels of endogenous substances with radioprotective and antimutagenic properties and environmental factors such as lifestyle and diet, physical activity, psychoemotional state, hormonal state, certain drugs, infections and others. These factors may have radioprotective or sensibilising effects. Apparently, there are too many factors that may significantly modulate the biological effects of ionising radiation. Thus, conventional methodologies for biodosimetry (specifically, cytogenetic methods) may produce significant errors if personal traits that may affect radioresistance are not accounted for.