The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hyperoxia, calcium ions and pH value on the composition of major phospholipids in human erythrocyte membranes and erythrocytes’ oxygen-transport function. To create a model of hyperoxia, we saturated the incubated mixture with oxygen by constant passing of oxygen–air mixture through the incubation medium. To assess the effect of elevated calcium ion concentrations, CaCl2 was added to the incubation medium. An incubation medium with different pH was used to study the effect of various pH values. Lipids were extracted from erythrocytes and chromatographic separation was carried out in a thin layer of silica gel deposited on a glass plate. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-active products and the content of diene conjugates (DC) in erythrocytes were determined. The oxygen-binding capacity of haemoglobin was evaluated using Raman spectroscopy. The obtained results indicated that hyperoxia causes deep changes both in the composition and character of bilayer lipids of erythrocyte membranes, which affects the functional characteristics of erythrocytes, primarily the oxygen-transport properties of erythrocyte haemoglobin. It should be noted that a combination of Ca2+ ions and change in the pH value intensify the processes associated with disruption of phospholipids’ composition. The findings indicate that the lipid phase is one of the key elements in the functioning of erythrocytes in norm as well as during development of various pathological processes.