The effect of pre-shot routines on golf wedge shot performance

Paul McCann, David Lavallee, Ruth M. Lavallee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to examine the effect of pre-performance routines among golfers of low skill and non-golfers on wedge golf shot performance. The intervention strategies involved a physical skill and cognitive-behavioral routine program, as well as a physical skills-only program. Performance was measured on a pre-intervention test, postintervention test, and following a period of time without treatment, and involved wedge shots being played from distances of 40, 50, and 60 m from a target. Participants in this study (N = 68) were assigned to either a golfer or non-golfer group. Participants in the treatment groups attended 2 practice sessions per week during the acquisition phase. A variable practice design was incorporated during the intervention phase. Non-golfers in both intervention groups improved performance following the acquisition phase and maintained these levels of performance in the retention test. Greater improvements in performance were found in the non-golfer physical skills and cognitive-behavioral routine group. The non-golfer physical skills and cognitive-behavioral routine group was the only group to realize significant improvements in performance when comparing initial test performance measures to post-intervention and retention test performance measures across all test distances. Although the golfer treatment groups had consistent improvement in performance measures following the intervention phase, these improvements did not reach statistical significance in the majority of cases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Task performance
  • Psychology
  • Golf


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