The effects of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Abstract

Musculoskeletal ageing is associated with profound morphological and functional changes that increase fall risk and disease incidence and is characterised by age-related reductions in motor unit number and atrophy of muscle fibres, particularly type II fibres. Decrements in functional strength and power are relatively modest until the 6th decade, after which the rate of loss exponentially accelerates, particularly beyond the 8th decade of life. Physical activity is a therapeutic modality that can significantly attenuate age-related decline. The underlying signature of ageing, as manifested by perturbed redox homeostasis, leads to a blunting of acute and chronic redox regulated exercise adaptations. Impaired redox regulated exercise adaptations are mechanistically related to altered exercise-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation and a resultant failure to properly activate redox regulated signaling cascades. Despite the aforementioned specific impairment in redox signaling, exercise induces a plethora of beneficial effects, irrespective of age. There is, therefore, strong evidence for promoting regular physical exercise, especially progressive resistance training as a lifelong habitual practice.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSedentary lifestyle
Subtitle of host publicationpredictive factors, health risks and physiological implications
Place of PublicationHauppauge, NY
PublisherNova Science Publishers
Pages69-84
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781634846738
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016

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Oxidation-Reduction
Skeletal Muscle
Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers
Reactive Nitrogen Species
Resistance Training
Atrophy
Reactive Oxygen Species
Homeostasis
Exercise
Incidence
Therapeutics

Cite this

Malone, J. K. (2016). The effects of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function. In Sedentary lifestyle: predictive factors, health risks and physiological implications (pp. 69-84). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Malone, John K. / The effects of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function. Sedentary lifestyle: predictive factors, health risks and physiological implications. Hauppauge, NY : Nova Science Publishers, 2016. pp. 69-84
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Malone, JK 2016, The effects of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function. in Sedentary lifestyle: predictive factors, health risks and physiological implications. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge, NY, pp. 69-84.

The effects of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function. / Malone, John K.

Sedentary lifestyle: predictive factors, health risks and physiological implications. Hauppauge, NY : Nova Science Publishers, 2016. p. 69-84.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

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Malone JK. The effects of ageing and exercise on skeletal muscle structure and function. In Sedentary lifestyle: predictive factors, health risks and physiological implications. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. 2016. p. 69-84