The impact of known criminogenic factors on offenders with intellectual disability: previous findings and new results on ADHD

William R. Lindsay, Derek Carson, Anthony J. Holland, John L. Taylor, Gregory O'Brien, Jessica R. Wheeler

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    27 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background
    Developmental and index offence variables have been implicated strongly in later criminal behaviour and service pathways and this paper investigated attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which, with conduct disorder, has emerged from previous studies on offenders. ADHD and conduct disorder are over-represented among criminal populations when compared to the general population. The present authors reviewed the extent to which ADHD affected the presentation of offenders with intellectual disability.

    Method
    Information related to index behaviour, history of problem behaviours, childhood adversity and psychiatric diagnoses was recorded in 477 referrals to forensic intellectual disability services. Comparisons were made between those with a previous diagnosis of ADHD and those without.

    Results
    The ADHD group showed higher proportions of physical aggression, substance use, previous problems including aggression, sexual offences and property offences, birth problems and abuse in childhood. Effect sizes were small.

    Conclusion
    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct disorder is associated with a greater degree and history of problematic behaviour in offenders with intellectual disability.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)71-80
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities
    Volume26
    Issue number1
    Early online date18 Dec 2012
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013

    Keywords

    • ADHD
    • Intellectual disability
    • Offending
    • Referral pathways
    • Service prediction

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