The orientationally controlled assembly of genetically modified enzymes in an amperometric biosensor

C. D. Gwenin, M. Kalaji*, P. A. Williams, R. M. Jones

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


A novel, nitroreductase (NTR) containing a sequence of six cysteine amino acids, enabling strong thiolate bonds to form on a gold electrode surface without the loss of enzyme activity, was genetically engineered. The enzyme was directly immobilised at a gold electrode without the need for pre-treatment of the surface with a self-assembled monolayer or a conducting polymer. The ensemble was used to develop an amperometric biosensor for the detection of explosives containing nitroaromatic compounds. Preliminary results demonstrate detection levels down to 100 parts per trillion, signifying tremendous promise towards an in situ sensor for the detection of explosives.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2869-2875
Number of pages7
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Issue number12
Early online date22 Jan 2007
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Amperometric biosensor
  • Explosives
  • Escherichia coli K12
  • Nitroreductase

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