The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions

Amin Garbout, Lars J. Munkholm, Søren B. Hansen, Bjørn M. Petersen, Ole L. Munk, Radoslaw Pajor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Aims Conventional methodology using destructive sampling, which is laborious and has poor spatial and temporal resolution, has limited our understanding of soil-plant interactions. New non-invasive tomographic techniques have the potential to significantly improve our knowledge. In this study we demonstrated the simultaneous use of PET (positron emission tomography) and CT (X-ray computed tomography) to (a) non-destructively image a whole plant growing in sand, and (b) to link the observed morphology with recently assimilated C. The PET scanner was used to detect and visualize the location of the short-lived radioisotope 11C (with a half-life of 20.4 min) taken up by the plant through 11C-labelled CO2. This provided information on carbon translocation and the metabolism of photo-assimilates in the plant as well as root structure. The CT scanners yielded data on soil and root structure. Methods A medical PET/CT scanner was used to scan a fodder radish plant growing in a pot with test soil composed of homogenous sand. We constructed an air-plant-soil controller system (APS) to control the environmental conditions, such as CO2, temperature and light during the experiment. The plant was allowed to assimilate 11CO2 for 90 min before PET scanning was initiated. We carried out PET scanning for 60 min. Subsequently, the aerial parts of the plant was cut off and the pot was rescanned using a micro-CT scanner to obtain more detailed information on structure of the root system and the growth medium structure. Results The acquired PET and CT images gave images clearly visualizing the architecture and morphology of root and soil. Using a CT scanner, we were able to detect the main taproot located at 0 to 30 mm depth. With the PET scanner, we were able to measure a signal down to 82 mm below the surface of the sand. We found the highest concentration of 11C at the position of the main root. The PET images, at different time intervals, showed the translocation and metabolisation of photo-assimilates from top to root. Using the micro-CT scanner (voxel size of 90 μm), we were able to detect roots down to 100 mm depth. These findings correlated the PET signals measured down to 82 mm depth. Conclusions We conclude that the simultaneous use of PET and CT technologies was successfully applied for soil-plant studies. The combined PET/CT technology has potential to provide new fundamental insight into soil-plant interactions and especially into the effect of abiotic stresses in spite of the limitation due to spatial resolution.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113–127
Number of pages15
JournalPlant and Soil
Volume352
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012

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positron-emission tomography
tomography
computed tomography
scanners
soil
methodology
scanner
soil-plant interactions
sand
carbon dioxide
translocation
controllers
radionuclides
radishes
abiotic stress
half life
aerial parts
root systems
culture media
forage

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Garbout, A., Munkholm, L. J., Hansen, S. B., Petersen, B. M., Munk, O. L., & Pajor, R. (2012). The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions. Plant and Soil, 352(1-2), 113–127. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-011-0983-8

Garbout, Amin; Munkholm, Lars J.; Hansen, Søren B.; Petersen, Bjørn M.; Munk, Ole L.; Pajor, Radoslaw / The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions.

In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 352, No. 1-2, 03.2012, p. 113–127.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions",
abstract = "Aims Conventional methodology using destructive sampling, which is laborious and has poor spatial and temporal resolution, has limited our understanding of soil-plant interactions. New non-invasive tomographic techniques have the potential to significantly improve our knowledge. In this study we demonstrated the simultaneous use of PET (positron emission tomography) and CT (X-ray computed tomography) to (a) non-destructively image a whole plant growing in sand, and (b) to link the observed morphology with recently assimilated C. The PET scanner was used to detect and visualize the location of the short-lived radioisotope 11C (with a half-life of 20.4 min) taken up by the plant through 11C-labelled CO2. This provided information on carbon translocation and the metabolism of photo-assimilates in the plant as well as root structure. The CT scanners yielded data on soil and root structure. Methods A medical PET/CT scanner was used to scan a fodder radish plant growing in a pot with test soil composed of homogenous sand. We constructed an air-plant-soil controller system (APS) to control the environmental conditions, such as CO2, temperature and light during the experiment. The plant was allowed to assimilate 11CO2 for 90 min before PET scanning was initiated. We carried out PET scanning for 60 min. Subsequently, the aerial parts of the plant was cut off and the pot was rescanned using a micro-CT scanner to obtain more detailed information on structure of the root system and the growth medium structure. Results The acquired PET and CT images gave images clearly visualizing the architecture and morphology of root and soil. Using a CT scanner, we were able to detect the main taproot located at 0 to 30 mm depth. With the PET scanner, we were able to measure a signal down to 82 mm below the surface of the sand. We found the highest concentration of 11C at the position of the main root. The PET images, at different time intervals, showed the translocation and metabolisation of photo-assimilates from top to root. Using the micro-CT scanner (voxel size of 90 μm), we were able to detect roots down to 100 mm depth. These findings correlated the PET signals measured down to 82 mm depth. Conclusions We conclude that the simultaneous use of PET and CT technologies was successfully applied for soil-plant studies. The combined PET/CT technology has potential to provide new fundamental insight into soil-plant interactions and especially into the effect of abiotic stresses in spite of the limitation due to spatial resolution.",
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volume = "352",
pages = "113–127",
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Garbout, A, Munkholm, LJ, Hansen, SB, Petersen, BM, Munk, OL & Pajor, R 2012, 'The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions' Plant and Soil, vol 352, no. 1-2, pp. 113–127. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-011-0983-8

The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions. / Garbout, Amin; Munkholm, Lars J.; Hansen, Søren B.; Petersen, Bjørn M.; Munk, Ole L.; Pajor, Radoslaw.

In: Plant and Soil, Vol. 352, No. 1-2, 03.2012, p. 113–127.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions

AU - Garbout,Amin

AU - Munkholm,Lars J.

AU - Hansen,Søren B.

AU - Petersen,Bjørn M.

AU - Munk,Ole L.

AU - Pajor,Radoslaw

PY - 2012/3

Y1 - 2012/3

N2 - Aims Conventional methodology using destructive sampling, which is laborious and has poor spatial and temporal resolution, has limited our understanding of soil-plant interactions. New non-invasive tomographic techniques have the potential to significantly improve our knowledge. In this study we demonstrated the simultaneous use of PET (positron emission tomography) and CT (X-ray computed tomography) to (a) non-destructively image a whole plant growing in sand, and (b) to link the observed morphology with recently assimilated C. The PET scanner was used to detect and visualize the location of the short-lived radioisotope 11C (with a half-life of 20.4 min) taken up by the plant through 11C-labelled CO2. This provided information on carbon translocation and the metabolism of photo-assimilates in the plant as well as root structure. The CT scanners yielded data on soil and root structure. Methods A medical PET/CT scanner was used to scan a fodder radish plant growing in a pot with test soil composed of homogenous sand. We constructed an air-plant-soil controller system (APS) to control the environmental conditions, such as CO2, temperature and light during the experiment. The plant was allowed to assimilate 11CO2 for 90 min before PET scanning was initiated. We carried out PET scanning for 60 min. Subsequently, the aerial parts of the plant was cut off and the pot was rescanned using a micro-CT scanner to obtain more detailed information on structure of the root system and the growth medium structure. Results The acquired PET and CT images gave images clearly visualizing the architecture and morphology of root and soil. Using a CT scanner, we were able to detect the main taproot located at 0 to 30 mm depth. With the PET scanner, we were able to measure a signal down to 82 mm below the surface of the sand. We found the highest concentration of 11C at the position of the main root. The PET images, at different time intervals, showed the translocation and metabolisation of photo-assimilates from top to root. Using the micro-CT scanner (voxel size of 90 μm), we were able to detect roots down to 100 mm depth. These findings correlated the PET signals measured down to 82 mm depth. Conclusions We conclude that the simultaneous use of PET and CT technologies was successfully applied for soil-plant studies. The combined PET/CT technology has potential to provide new fundamental insight into soil-plant interactions and especially into the effect of abiotic stresses in spite of the limitation due to spatial resolution.

AB - Aims Conventional methodology using destructive sampling, which is laborious and has poor spatial and temporal resolution, has limited our understanding of soil-plant interactions. New non-invasive tomographic techniques have the potential to significantly improve our knowledge. In this study we demonstrated the simultaneous use of PET (positron emission tomography) and CT (X-ray computed tomography) to (a) non-destructively image a whole plant growing in sand, and (b) to link the observed morphology with recently assimilated C. The PET scanner was used to detect and visualize the location of the short-lived radioisotope 11C (with a half-life of 20.4 min) taken up by the plant through 11C-labelled CO2. This provided information on carbon translocation and the metabolism of photo-assimilates in the plant as well as root structure. The CT scanners yielded data on soil and root structure. Methods A medical PET/CT scanner was used to scan a fodder radish plant growing in a pot with test soil composed of homogenous sand. We constructed an air-plant-soil controller system (APS) to control the environmental conditions, such as CO2, temperature and light during the experiment. The plant was allowed to assimilate 11CO2 for 90 min before PET scanning was initiated. We carried out PET scanning for 60 min. Subsequently, the aerial parts of the plant was cut off and the pot was rescanned using a micro-CT scanner to obtain more detailed information on structure of the root system and the growth medium structure. Results The acquired PET and CT images gave images clearly visualizing the architecture and morphology of root and soil. Using a CT scanner, we were able to detect the main taproot located at 0 to 30 mm depth. With the PET scanner, we were able to measure a signal down to 82 mm below the surface of the sand. We found the highest concentration of 11C at the position of the main root. The PET images, at different time intervals, showed the translocation and metabolisation of photo-assimilates from top to root. Using the micro-CT scanner (voxel size of 90 μm), we were able to detect roots down to 100 mm depth. These findings correlated the PET signals measured down to 82 mm depth. Conclusions We conclude that the simultaneous use of PET and CT technologies was successfully applied for soil-plant studies. The combined PET/CT technology has potential to provide new fundamental insight into soil-plant interactions and especially into the effect of abiotic stresses in spite of the limitation due to spatial resolution.

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DO - 10.1007/s11104-011-0983-8

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JO - Plant and Soil

T2 - Plant and Soil

JF - Plant and Soil

SN - 0032-079X

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Garbout A, Munkholm LJ, Hansen SB, Petersen BM, Munk OL, Pajor R. The use of PET/CT scanning technique for 3D visualization and quantification of real-time soil/plant interactions. Plant and Soil. 2012 Mar;352(1-2):113–127. Available from, DOI: 10.1007/s11104-011-0983-8