Towards improving the efficacy of code-based verification in internet voting

Oksana Kulyk*, Melanie Volkamer, Monika Müller, Karen Renaud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)
155 Downloads (Pure)


End-to-end verifiable Internet voting enables a high level of election integrity. Cast-as-intended verification, in particular, allows voters to verify that their vote has been correctly cast, even in the presence of malicious voting devices. One cast-as-intended verification approach is code-based verification, used since 2015 in legally-binding Swiss elections. We evaluated the Swiss paper-based polling sheet and voting interface, focusing on how well it supported voters in verifying their votes. We uncovered several potential issues related to manipulation detection. We improved the paper-based polling sheet and voting interface accordingly. Then, we carried out a between-subjects lab study with 128 participants to compare the original and improved sheet and interface wrt. usability and its effectiveness in supporting manipulation detection. Our improvements significantly enhanced detection. Our study delivered insights into participants’ somewhat ineffectual reactions to detected anomalies, i.e. starting over again and trying to cast the same vote again, or calling the telephone number provided by the interface. This problem is likely to manifest in any verifiable voting system and thus needs to be addressed as future work.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFinancial Cryptography and Data Security
Subtitle of host publicationFC 2020 International Workshops, AsiaUSEC, CoDeFi, VOTING, and WTSC, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, February 14, 2020, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsMatthew Bernhard, Andrea Bracciali, L. Jean Camp, Shin'ichiro Matsuo, Alana Maurushat, Peter B. Rønne, Massimiliano Sala
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages19
ISBN (Electronic)9783030544553
ISBN (Print)9783030544546
Publication statusPublished - 7 Aug 2020
Event5th Workshop on Advances in Secure Electronic Voting
- Shangri-La Tanjung Aru Resort & Spa, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
Duration: 14 Feb 202014 Feb 2020
Conference number: 5th

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS)
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Workshop5th Workshop on Advances in Secure Electronic Voting
CityKota Kinabalu
OtherSecure voting protocols, in particular so-called end-to-end verifiable schemes, have been a hot topic of research for more than a decade. Voting poses many challenges: the precise characterization of very subtle properties including verifiability and coercion resistance, and the design and analysis of schemes providing these properties. The field requires a deep understanding of modern crypto but is also highly interdisciplinary, requiring understanding of the role of humans, procedures etc.
Workshop is part of 24th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2020
Internet address


  • E-voting
  • Verifiability
  • Usability


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