Objective To explore the association between diet and socio-economic position for 2007-2009 and investigate trends in socio-economic inequalities in the Scottish diet between 2001 and 2009. Design UK food purchase data (collected annually from 2001 to 2009) were used to estimate household-level consumption data. Population mean food consumption, nutrient intakes and energy density were estimated by quintiles of an area-based index of multiple deprivation. Food and nutrient intakes estimated were those targeted for change in Scotland and others indicative of diet quality. The slope and relative indices of inequality were used to assess trends in inequalities in consumption over time. Setting Scotland. Subjects Scottish households (n 5020). Results Daily consumption of fruit and vegetables (200 g, 348 g), brown/wholemeal bread (17 g, 26·5 g), breakfast cereals (16 g, 27 g) and oil-rich (21 g, 40 g) and white fish (77 g, 112 g) were lowest, and that of total bread highest (105 g, 91·5 g) in the most deprived compared with the least deprived households, respectively, for the period 2007-2009. With regard to nutrients, there was no association between deprivation and the percentage of food energy from total fat and saturated fat; however, non-milk extrinsic sugar intakes (15·5 %, 14·3 %) and energy density (741 kJ/100 g, 701 kJ/100 g) were significantly higher in the most deprived households. The slope and relative indices of inequality showed that inequalities in intakes between 2001 and 2009 have changed very little. Conclusions There was no evidence to suggest that the difference in targeted food and nutrient intakes between the least and most deprived has decreased compared with previous years.