What did I really vote for? On the usability of verifiable e-voting schemes

Karola Marky, Oksana Kulyk, Karen Renaud, Melanie Volkamer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

12 Citations (Scopus)
599 Downloads (Pure)


E-voting has been embraced by a number of countries, delivering benefits in terms of efficiency and accessibility. End-to-end verifiable e-voting schemes facilitate verification of the integrity of individual votes during the election process. In particular, methods for cast-as-intended verification enable voters to confirm that their cast votes have not been manipulated by the voting client. A well-known technique for effecting cast-as-intended verification is the Benaloh Challenge. The usability of this challenge is crucial because voters have to be actively engaged in the verification process. In this paper, we report on a usability evaluation of three different approaches of the Benaloh Challenge in the remote e-voting context. We performed a comparative user study with 95 participants. We conclude with a recommendation for which approaches should be provided to afford verification in real-world elections and suggest usability improvements.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Place of PublicationNew York
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery (ACM)
Number of pages13
ISBN (Print)9781450356206
Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2018
EventCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: Engage with CHI - Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
Duration: 21 Apr 201826 Apr 2018


ConferenceCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Abbreviated titleCHI 2018
Internet address


  • E-voting
  • End-to-end verifiability
  • Cast-as-intended
  • Verifiability
  • Usability evaluation
  • Benaloh challenge


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