Leadership behaviour as perceived by employees in psychological services organizations
: study applied on the employees of the Social Development Office - Amiri Diwan, state of Kuwait

  • Basheer Al-Rashidi

Student thesis: Doctoral Thesis


Social Development Office (SDO) is a governmental non-profit organization in the State of Kuwait. SDO offers psychological services aiming to overcome the psychological disorders resulting from the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait (1990-91). SDO’s operational strategy asserted that the execution of work depends on a manager with leadership skills (Manager-Leader), not a manager who will only administer(Manager-Administrator). This study aimed to investigate the SDO managers’performance as perceived by the SDO employees from the leadership perspective.The objective of the study is twofold : firstly to identify the dimensions of leadership behaviour, and secondly to examine the types of leadership demonstrated by SDO managers. The study used a specially designed scale which was tested for validity and reliability. The scale was administered on a randomly selected sample (N=120),consisting of SDO employees. The scale measured eight dimensions of leadership behaviour which are : organization of the working structure; understanding working details; promoting employees’ efficiency; achieving co-operation and teamwork spirit; decision-making; responsibility towards work and subordinates; boosting the morale, and social sensitivity. The scale also measured ten types of leadership which are : focused leadership; communication leadership; trust leadership; respectful leadership; risk leadership; bottom-line leadership; empowered leadership; long-term leadership; organizational leadership, and cultural leadership. The study showed that SDO employees evaluated their managers positively with a percentage of 65 regarding the leadership behaviour as a whole. On the level of each dimension separately, SDO employees’ evaluation of the managers performance ranged between 54.3-76.5%. SDO managers got a relatively low mean score on items of responsibility (54.3%); organizing work structure (57.3%); increasing work efficiency(57.3%); decision-making (62.5%); co-operation and team-work spirit (64%);understanding work details (70%), boosting the morale (68%) and social sensitivity(76.5%). Regarding the types of leadership demonstrated by SDO managers according to the SDO employees, the study showed that the Communication Leadership is the most common type which was demonstrated by the SDO managers. 81% of the interviewees responses confirmed this aspect. In fact this high percentage agrees with the high positive percentage of interviewee responses on several items of the questionnaire which demonstrate the interaction of managers with workers.Regarding Focused Leadership, this was demonstrated by SDO managers according to 76% of the interviewees. 65% of the SDO employees asserted that their managers demonstrated the Bottom-Line Leadership; Respectful Leadership (61%); Long-Term Leadership (57%); Organizational Leadership (56%); Trust Leadership (42.5%);Cultural Leadership (41%); Risk Leadership (40%), and Empowered Leadership(35%). It is clear that the Empowered Leadership is the least type of leadership demonstrated by the SDO managers according to the SDO employees. The study discussed the significance of these results in relation to the SDO managers performance from the perspective of the effective leadership criteria in organizations in general and the Kuwaiti context in particular. The results suggest that for SDO to become a more effective institution, the management has to organize advanced training courses for their managers to gain leadership skills, knowledge and attitudes which will be beneficial to both, the management and the employees.
Date of Award2003
Original languageEnglish

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